Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, but the antioxidants in wine may, in theory, provide protection. This association was studied in 28,160 men and women subjects from three prospective studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. After adjustment for age, smoking, and education, a low to moderate alcohol intake (1-20 drinks per week) was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Men who consumed 21-41 and more than 41 drinks per week had relative risks of 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.74) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.06-2.33), respectively. The risk of lung cancer differed according to the type of alcohol consumed: After abstainers were excluded, drinkers of 1-13 and more than 13 glasses of wine per week had relative risks of 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.22-0.86), respectively, as compared with nondrinkers of wine (p for trend = 0.002). Corresponding relative risks for beer intake were 1.09 (95% CI 0.83-1.43) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.02-1.82), respectively (p for trend = 0.01); for spirits, they were 1.21 (95% CI 0.97-1.50) and 1.46 (95% CI 0.99-2.14), respectively (p for trend = 0.02). In women, the ability to detect associations with high alcohol intake and type of beverage was limited because of a limited range of alcohol intake. The authors concluded that in men, a high consumption of beer and spirits is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, whereas wine intake may protect against the development of lung cancer.
A population based cohort study investigates the association between alcohol intake and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease and cancer. The design is prospective with baseline assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits, smoking habits, educational level, physical activity, and body mass index and a total of 257,859 person-years follow-up on mortality. A total of 4,833 participants died, of these 1,075 from coronary heart disease and 1,552 of cancer. Compared with non-drinkers, light drinkers who avoided wine, had a relative risk of death from all causes of 0.90 (0.82-0.99) and those who drank wine had a relative risk of 0.66 (0.55-0.77). Heavy drinkers who avoided wine were at higher risk of death from all causes than were heavy drinkers who included wine in their alcohol intake. Wine drinkers had significantly lower mortality from both coronary heart disease and cancer than did non-wine drinkers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. This effect may be attributable to a reduction in death from both coronary heart disease and cancer.
The relationships between the length of education and the frequency of alcohol use were analysed in 12,000 men and women in Troms?, Norway. Men drank beer and spirits more often than women, whereas the proportion of men and women who drank wine once a week, or more frequently, was the same (9%). Subjects with a high level of education drank all three types of alcohol more frequently than men and women with a low level of education. This was particularly true for wine (and beer for women). About 1% of men and women with less than 8 years of education stated that they drank wine at least once a week. In contrast, about one in four with more than 16 years of education drank wine weekly. The proportion of weekly beer drinkers in men with less than 8 years of education (23%) was less than half that for men with more than 16 years of education (53%). The relationship between the frequency of alcohol use and the level of education was not as strong for spirits as for wine.
In order to compare data on intake of wine, beer and spirits from a frequency questionnaire with intake of each type of alcoholic beverage estimated from a dietary interview, a randomly selected sub-sample of 244 women and 249 men aged 35-65 years was cross-sectionally studied. The sample was a sub-sample of the Danish MONICA study. Mean outcome measure in the study was the differences in intake of beer, wine and spirits as reported by the frequency questionnaire and the diet history interview. We found an overall agreement between the two methods, with very little or no systematic variation for all three alcoholic beverages. We conclude that compared to a more time and money consuming thorough dietary interview, the traditional frequency questionnaires seem to sufficiently capture intakes of different types of alcohol. Bias in alcohol reporting by the frequency questionnaire does not seem responsible for the recently found decreased mortality among subjects with a daily intake of wine, nor the increased mortality from drinking of spirits.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. DESIGN AND SETTING: Tap water samples were collected from 41 evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milk was collected at the same time (twice summer and twice winter). Soft drinks, beers and juice were collected from different Danish producers and wine from different countries. All samples were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Iodine in tap water varied from 2.1 to 30.2 microg/l; the iodine content was in general highest in the eastern part of Denmark and lowest in the western part of Denmark. Organic milk was found to have a lower iodine content than non-organic milk. CONCLUSIONS: Large geographical (and seasonal) variations in iodine concentrations were found in different beverages supplying an appreciable part of the iodine in the Danish diet. This knowledge is important when calculating the iodine intake from dietary intake studies. SPONSORSHIP: The 1991 Farmacy Foundation and Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 57-60
The levels of lead in 67 different table wines on the Swedish market in 1982 and 1986 have been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean level found was 73 micrograms/l (range 16-170 micrograms/l). Little difference was found between the levels in red, white and rosé wines (mean levels 76, 75 and 65 micrograms/l, ranges 16-120, 34-170 and 35-120 micrograms/l respectively). The average daily dietary intake of lead by adults in Sweden has been estimated to be about 30 micrograms, excluding any contribution from wines and spirits. The average adult per capita consumption of wine is about 45 ml per day. This would thus give an additional intake of about 3 micrograms of lead and the intake of lead could be doubled by consuming half a litre of wine daily.
In a prospective population study of 7,234 women and 6,051 men aged 30-79 years, information on beer, wine, spirits and tobacco consumption, and on education, income and body mass index were assessed in the period 1976-1978, and the population was followed until 1.1.1988 for mortality. With increasing intake, the wine-mortality risk function steadily decreased from a relative risk of 1.00 for those who never drank wine through 0.51 (95% confidence limits; 0.32-0.81) among those who drank three to five glasses per day. In contrast, neither beer nor spirits consumption was associated with reduced risk. For spirits consumption the relative risk of dying increased from 1.00 among those who never drank to 1.34 (1.05-1.71) among those with an intake of 3-5 drinks per day. Wine drinking showed the same relation to risk of death from cardio- and cerebrovascular disease as to mortality from all causes.
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the area under the curve (AUC) as a measure of the bioavailability of ethanol in healthy volunteers drinking six alcoholic beverages of different types. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between the ethanol concentration in the blood and the breath test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers (seven females, five males) consumed six drinks of different types in a crossover design after a six-hour fast. The men ingested 36 g of ethanol and the women 24 g.Venous blood was obtained for determination of serum ethanol and glucose concentration at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes postdosing, and at the same time a breath alcohol test was done using an alcoholometer. RESULTS: The AUC of ethanol differed significantly between pure ethanol and the three beverages red wine, sparkling wine and Smirnoff Ice (p or = 0.5% showed a negative (false negative). DISCUSSION: This investigation shows that the type of alcoholic beverage consumed determines the amount of alcohol absorbed. Furthermore, the different drinks caused different changes in the glucose and insulin concentrations, which might be important in connection with alcohol-induced disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., hypo- and hyperglycaemia). Our data indicate that the alcoholometer breath test was an acceptable screening method to estimate the blood alcohol level and to measure the amount of ethanol ingested. However, for evidental purposes during prosecution of drunk drivers, more sophisticated breath test instruments are desirable.
Many epidemiological studies have described a U-shaped relation between alcohol intake and all-cause mortality (Boffetta and Garfinkel, 1990; Fuchs et al., 1995; Gronbaek et al., 1994; Marmot et al., 1981). Most researchers attribute the 'U' to a combination of beneficial and harmful effects of ethanol itself. It has, on the other hand, been explained as an artefact due to misclassification or confounding (Shaper et al., 1998). Most of the studies of the effect of total alcohol intake have found that the descending leg of the curve mainly is attributable to death from cardiovascular disease (Rimm et al., 1991; Stampfer et al., 1988). Until recently, most studies addressed the effect of the three beverages taken together as ethanol. Studies of the correlation between wine intake per capita in different countries and incidence of ischaemic heart disease gave rise to the hypothesis that there is a a more beneficial effect of wine than of beer and spirits. Leger et al., Renaud and de Lorgeril and later Criqui and Rigel found an inverse relation between incidence rates of ischemic heart disease and wine consumption in different countries, but no such relation for the other types of beverages (Criqui and Rigel, 1994; Leger et al., 1979; Renaud and de Logeril, 1992).