In Sweden, alcohol abstention has increased over the last 20 years and consumption has recently decreased after a peak in 2004. To understand the dynamics of these trends the present study aims at estimating age, period and cohort (APC) effects on trends in alcohol use prevalence as well as overall and beverage-specific volume of drinking over the last three decades.
APC analysis of seven cross-sectional surveys from 1979 to 2011 was conducted using cross-classified random effects models (CCREMs) by gender. The nationally representative samples comprised 77,598 respondents aged 16-80 years. Outcome measures were 30-day prevalence of alcohol use and overall as well as beverage-specific alcohol volume.
Trends in prevalence, overall and beverage-specific volume were significantly affected by APC. The period effects of prevalence and overall volume show a small decline after an increase up to the year 2005. Mean beer and wine volume levelled off after a peak in 2005 and volume of spirits drinking decreased constantly. Predicted alcohol prevalence rates in male cohorts (1945-1985) remained generally at the same level, while they declined in post-World War II female generations. Results point to high overall and beverage-specific consumption among cohorts born in the 1940s, 1950s and 1980s.
High consuming cohorts of the 1940-1950s were key in rising consumption up to 2005. Progression through the life course of these cohorts, a decrease in prevalence and drinking volume in successive cohorts seem to have contributed to the recent downward trend in alcohol use in Sweden.
The association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer was examined in a population-based case-control study performed in Stockholm in 1986-88. The study included 352 cases of colon cancer, 217 cases of rectal cancer, and 512 controls. Relative risks, with 95% confidence intervals, were calculated for total alcohol intake and for different alcoholic beverages. Total alcohol intake (> or = 30 g 100% ethanol per day) was not associated with colon cancer (relative risk = 0.9, confidence intervals = 0.4-1.8) or rectal cancer (1.0, 0.4-2.1). There was no evidence supporting beverage specificity (for colorectal cancer and > or = 10 g 100% ethanol per day: beer 1.1, 0.6-2.0, wine 1.0, 0.4-2.7, spirits 1.0, 0.6-1.6). The associations did not vary according to gender or site within the large bowel. These analyses were adjusted for year of birth and gender (when appropriate). Further adjustments for diet, body mass or physical activity had little or no influence on the results. The present study does not support the hypothesis that alcohol plays an important role in the aetiology of cancer of the colon and rectum in a population with a relatively low alcohol intake.
A large number of prospective studies have observed an inverse relationship between a moderate intake of alcohol and coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. Concerning death from all-causes, results are not unanimous. Alcohol intake was associated with a protection of all-cause mortality in England and USA physicians and the large study of the American Cancer Society. None of these studies separated the effects of different alcoholic beverages. In our prospective studies in France on 35 000 middle-aged men, we observed that only wine at moderate intake, was associated with a protective effect on all-cause mortality. The reason was that in addition to the known effect on cardiovascular diseases, a very moderate intake of wine, protected also from cancer and other causes as confirmed by Gronbaek in Denmark. Our recent results also indicate that the protective effect of a moderate intake of wine on all-cause mortality is observed at all levels of blood pressure and serum cholesterol.
The study was carried out to determine the associations of alcohol beverage drinking with macronutrients, antioxidants, and body mass index.
Dietary subsample of the 1992 Finmonica cardiovascular risk factor survey in Finland; a cross-sectional study.
985 women and 863 men were drawn from the population register in the four monitoring areas. All subjects were 25-64 y of age.
The mailed questionnaire included questions covering socioeconomic factors, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The diet was assessed using a three-day food record.
The dietary differences between abstainers and alcohol consumers were more significant than between consumers of different alcoholic beverages. Among drinkers, fat intake as a percentage of energy was higher and carbohydrate intake was lower than among abstainers. Those who preferred wine, however, had the highest vitamin C intake; female wine drinkers also had the highest carotenoid intake. With the exception of those who mainly preferred spirits, alcohol energy was not added to the diet but seemed to substitute food items both in men and women. Despite the similar total daily energy intakes, daily energy expenditure, and physical activity index, male drinkers were leaner than abstainers. In women, the proportion of underreporters of energy intake increased with increasing alcohol consumption, and the association between alcohol and body mass index was similar to that in men after the exclusion of underreporters.
Alcohol consumers were leaner than abstainers, and wine drinkers in particular had more antioxidants in their diet.
From a total population of 10,766 Swedish 50- to 59-year-old women, 6,917 (64.2%) participated in the Women's Health in Lund Area (WHILA) study, and among them 6,623 (95.7%) answered the questions on alcohol consumption. One out of 4 women (26.0%) consumed no alcohol in an ordinary week (non-drinkers), 57.4% consumed not more than 83 g alcohol, 12.5% consumed 84-167 g and 4.2% consumed 168 g or more. The weekly drinkers had a median consumption of 40.0 g alcohol (range 2.5-1,036.0) and the main sort of alcohol was wine. Comparing the four drinking groups, most differences occurred between the non-drinking and the weekly drinking women. The non-drinkers had lower socio-demographic status, poorer health and more symptoms, especially physical symptoms. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, most associations between non-drinking and lower socio-demographic status remained.
To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability.
Prospective cohort study.
Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016.
6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment.
Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and =14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women).
4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (=3 servings), beer (=3 servings), or spirits (=2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window.
Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of consumption of beer and wine.
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Alcohol is a potential risk factor of Type 2 diabetes. However, more detailed information on effects of alcohol types and early phases of Type 2 diabetes development seems warranted. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of alcohol consumption and specific alcoholic beverages on the risk of developing pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Swedish men and women.
Subjects, who at baseline had normal glucose tolerance (2070 men and 3058 women) or pre-diabetes (70 men and 41 women), aged 35-56 years, were evaluated in this cohort study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)] to develop pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes at 8-10 years follow-up, in relation to self-reported alcohol intake at baseline. Adjustment was performed for several risk factors.
Total alcohol consumption and binge drinking increased the risk of pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes in men (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.03 and OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.11-2.50, respectively), while low consumption decreased diabetes risk in women (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22-0.79). Men showed higher risk of pre-diabetes with high beer consumption (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.01) and of Type 2 diabetes with high consumption of spirits (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.27-3.24). Women showed a reduced risk of pre-diabetes with high wine intake (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-0.99) and of Type 2 diabetes with medium intake of both wine and spirits (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.88 and OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.97, respectively), whereas high consumption of spirits increased the pre-diabetes risk(OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.47-3.96).
High alcohol consumption increases the risk of abnormal glucose regulation in men. In women the associations are more complex: decreased risk with low or medium intake and increased risk with high alcohol intake.