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98 records – page 1 of 10.

Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to wind.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278633
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2016 Jan;85(1):115-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Jason W Chapman
Cecilia Nilsson
Ka S Lim
Johan Bäckman
Don R Reynolds
Thomas Alerstam
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2016 Jan;85(1):115-24
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animal Migration
Animals
Flight, Animal
Moths - physiology
Radar
Seasons
Songbirds - physiology
Sweden
Wind
Abstract
Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, that is by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the flow and the speed of the animal's own propulsion in relation to the surrounding air. Here we analyse entomological and ornithological radar data from north-western Europe to investigate how two different nocturnal migrant taxa, the noctuid moth Autographa gamma and songbirds, deal with wind by analysing variation in resulting flight directions in relation to the wind-dependent angle between the animal's heading and track direction. Our results, from fixed locations along the migratory journey, reveal different global strategies used by moths and songbirds during their migratory journeys. As expected, nocturnally migrating moths experienced a greater degree of wind drift than nocturnally migrating songbirds, but both groups were more affected by wind in autumn than in spring. The songbirds' strategies involve elements of both drift and compensation, providing some benefits from wind in combination with destination and time control. In contrast, moths expose themselves to a significantly higher degree of drift in order to obtain strong wind assistance, surpassing the songbirds in mean ground speed, at the cost of a comparatively lower spatiotemporal migratory precision. Moths and songbirds show contrasting but adaptive responses to migrating through a moving flow, which are fine-tuned to the respective flight capabilities of each group in relation to the wind currents they travel within.
PubMed ID
26147535 View in PubMed
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Adverse health effects of industrial wind turbines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113884
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2013 May;59(5):473-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Roy D Jeffery
Carmen Krogh
Brett Horner
Author Affiliation
Northeastern Manitoulin Family Health Team, Box 549, Little Current, ON P0P 1K0, Canada. jeffery_07@sympatico.ca
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2013 May;59(5):473-5
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Family Practice
Humans
Noise - adverse effects
Power Plants - statistics & numerical data
Public Health
Wind
Notes
Cites: BMJ. 2012;344:e152722403264
Cites: J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Aug;126(2):634-4319640029
Cites: J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Jun;129(6):3727-4421682397
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2007 Jul;64(7):480-617332136
Cites: Noise Health. 2012 Sep-Oct;14(60):237-4323117539
Cites: Noise Health. 2005 Apr-Jun;7(27):39-4716105248
Cites: Noise Health. 2011 Sep-Oct;13(54):333-921959113
PubMed ID
23673580 View in PubMed
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Aerodynamic drag is not the major determinant of performance during giant slalom skiing at the elite level.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119255
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013 Feb;23(1):e38-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
M. Supej
L. Saetran
L. Oggiano
G. Ettema
N. Šarabon
B. Nemec
H-C Holmberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013 Feb;23(1):e38-47
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Athletic Performance - physiology
Biomechanical Phenomena
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Friction
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Skiing - physiology
Snow
Sweden
Time Factors
Wind
Young Adult
Abstract
This investigation was designed to (a) develop an individualized mechanical model for measuring aerodynamic drag (F(d) ) while ski racing through multiple gates, (b) estimate energy dissipation (E(d) ) caused by F(d) and compare this to the total energy loss (E(t) ), and (c) investigate the relative contribution of E(d) /E(t) to performance during giant slalom skiing (GS). Nine elite skiers were monitored in different positions and with different wind velocities in a wind tunnel, as well as during GS and straight downhill skiing employing a Global Navigation Satellite System. On the basis of the wind tunnel measurements, a linear regression model of drag coefficient multiplied by cross-sectional area as a function of shoulder height was established for each skier (r > 0.94, all P
PubMed ID
23121340 View in PubMed
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Aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature244607
Source
Br J Ophthalmol. 1981 Apr;65(4):270-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1981
Author
G J Johnson
Source
Br J Ophthalmol. 1981 Apr;65(4):270-83
Date
Apr-1981
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Corneal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Humidity
Ice
Male
Middle Aged
Newfoundland and Labrador
Snow
Temperature
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Wind
Abstract
To determine the aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea (Labrador keratopathy), total population surveys were conducted in 5 communities in coastal Labrador and northern Newfoundland. For 4 years records were also kept on all clinic patients aged 40 or more throughout the region. Both methods gave a peak prevalence at latitudes 55 degrees--56 degrees north. The greatest severity and earliest age of onset occurred around the same latitudes. Of the proposed environmental causative agents only ultraviolet radiation, reflected from ice and snow, explains the distribution of the disease. The high cumulative UV dosage is due to the unique geographical and climatic features of the region.
Notes
Cites: Exp Eye Res. 1965 Dec;4(4):355-635867355
Cites: Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1972;50(4):532-84678271
Cites: Am J Ophthalmol. 1972 Nov;74(5):821-84539458
Cites: Arch Ophthalmol. 1973 Jan;89(1):36-454630887
Cites: Arch Ophthalmol. 1973 Mar;89(3):193-74120598
Cites: Can J Ophthalmol. 1973 Apr;8(2):298-3054541018
Cites: Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1974;52(6):777-854549005
Cites: Can J Ophthalmol. 1975 Apr;10(2):119-351125837
Cites: Am J Pathol. 1977 Dec;89(3):718-808339743
Cites: Br J Ophthalmol. 1978 Jan;62(1):53-61629911
Cites: Arch Ophthalmol. 1965 Aug;74:198-20214318495
PubMed ID
7236572 View in PubMed
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Air pollution modeling at road sides using the operational street pollution model--a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99898
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2010 Nov;60(11):1315-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Ngo Tho Hung
Matthias Ketzel
Steen Solvang Jensen
Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Atmospheric Environment, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark. nth@dmu.dk
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2010 Nov;60(11):1315-26
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Algorithms
Circadian Rhythm
Environmental monitoring
Models, Statistical
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Vietnam
Wind
Abstract
In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out in many developed countries by a combination of air quality measurements and modeling. This study focuses on how to apply a dispersion model to cities in the developing world, where model input data and data from air quality monitoring stations are limited or of varying quality. This research uses the operational street pollution model (OSPM) developed by the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark for a case study in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. OSPM predictions from five streets were evaluated against air pollution measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and benzene (BNZ) that were available from previous studies. Hourly measurements and passive sample measurements collected over 3-week periods were compared with model outputs, applying emission factors from previous studies. In addition, so-called "backward calculations" were performed to adapt the emission factors for Hanoi conditions. The average fleet emission factors estimated can be used for emission calculations at other streets in Hanoi and in other locations in Southeast Asia with similar vehicle types. This study also emphasizes the need to further eliminate uncertainties in input data for the street-scale air pollution modeling in Vietnam, namely by providing reliable emission factors and hourly air pollution measurements of high quality.
PubMed ID
21141425 View in PubMed
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Ambient noise measurements from 100 Hz to 80 kHz in an Alaskan fjord.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature224012
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 1992 Apr;91(4 Pt 1):1990-2003
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1992
Author
S O McConnell
M P Schilt
J G Dworski
Author Affiliation
Areté Associates, La Jolla, California 92038.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 1992 Apr;91(4 Pt 1):1990-2003
Date
Apr-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acoustics
Alaska
Humans
Noise
Oceans and Seas
Seasons
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted - instrumentation
Sound Spectrography - instrumentation
Water
Weather
Wind
Abstract
Measurements covering a broad frequency range from 100 Hz to 80 kHz have been made in Behm Canal, Alaska. This site represents a fairly deep embayment (400 m) with a soft bottom (porosity of about 0.8) and, hence, the noise detected at the hydrophones is affected negligibly by multipath contributions except possibly at the lowest frequencies. Data were gathered over a wide range of wind speeds (0 to 15 m/s) and during periods of rain and snow. Several unique and noteworthy results were obtained. Foremost was the observation that the wind-generated noise level measured during the winter was approximately 5 dB lower than during the summer for the same wind speeds and air-sea temperature differences (air temperature about the same as or colder than the sea surface). The summer data agree well with the most recent published measurements and are approximately 2 dB higher than the standard Knudsen/Wenz reference spectra. It appeared that below-freezing air temperatures and snow were responsible for the 5 dB offset between the summer and winter data. Most reported wind noise measurements are restricted to frequencies less than 20 kHz. Those that go beyond this frequency display a noticeable hump above the usual--17 dB/decade power-law slope, and the Behm Canal measurements show that this hump continues to 80 kHz where the spectrum rejoins the extension of the canonical power-law slope.
PubMed ID
1597595 View in PubMed
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Amplitude modulation of sound from wind turbines under various meteorological conditions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264950
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2014 Jan;135(1):67-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Conny Larsson
Olof Öhlund
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2014 Jan;135(1):67-73
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acoustics
Atmospheric Pressure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humidity
Motion
Noise - adverse effects
Power Plants
Renewable Energy
Sound Spectrography
Sweden
Temperature
Time Factors
Wind
Abstract
Wind turbine (WT) sound annoys some people even though the sound levels are relatively low. This could be because of the amplitude modulated "swishing" characteristic of the turbine sound, which is not taken into account by standard procedures for measuring average sound levels. Studies of sound immission from WTs were conducted continually between 19 August 2011 and 19 August 2012 at two sites in Sweden. A method for quantifying the degree and strength of amplitude modulation (AM) is introduced here. The method reveals that AM at the immission points occur under specific meteorological conditions. For WT sound immission, the wind direction and sound speed gradient are crucial for the occurrence of AM. Interference between two or more WTs could probably enhance AM. The mechanisms by which WT sound is amplitude modulated are not fully understood.
PubMed ID
24437746 View in PubMed
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Assessment of the Main Natural Disturbances on Norwegian Forest Based on 20 Years of National Inventory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285117
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161361
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Olalla Díaz-Yáñez
Blas Mola-Yudego
Rune Eriksen
José Ramón González-Olabarria
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161361
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Ecosystem
Forests
Fungi - physiology
Moths
Norway
Snow
Wind
Abstract
The re-measurement of permanent forest inventories offers a unique opportunity to assess the occurrence and impact of forest disturbances. The present study aims at exploring the main forest damages in Norway based on the extensive data of several consecutive national forest inventories during the period 1995-2014. Five of the most common disturbance agents in Norway are selected for analysis: wind, snow, browsing, fungus and insect damage. The analyses focuses on the frequency and variation along time, the average damage at stand level and the spatial patterns of damage occurrence, resulting in a characterization of the damage produced by disturbances in Norway. The highest damage occurrences by disturbance agent are due to browsing, snow and wind. Snow presents a decreasing temporally trend in damage frequency in the studied period. By forest type, mature and intermediate birch forest are found to be more affected by snow damage, whereas mature spruce forest is by wind damage. The results from this study provide support to the hypothesis that damages by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) on birch are more common in mature stands. No major attacks from bark beetle (Ips typographus) are found, probably related to the lack of major storm damages in the period. Forest types susceptibility to fungus has no apparent variation over time except in the last years, as increased occurrence is observed on mature spruce stands probably correlated with warmer than average periods. Browsing damage causes the most severe losses, as expected, in young stands, and is allocated mainly on the most productive forests. Although some of the disturbances present locally moderate effects, the results show no major disturbances threatening Norwegian forests in the studied period. Finally, the Norwegian national forest inventory demonstrates its reliability as a basis to understand the occurrence and effects of major natural disturbances.
Notes
Cites: Ecology. 2006 Feb;87(2):283-9016637352
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2005 Jul;20(7):387-9416701401
Cites: J Anim Ecol. 2007 Mar;76(2):258-6817302833
Cites: Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2016 Aug;91(3):760-8126010526
Cites: Environ Manage. 1999 Sep;24(2):209-21710384030
PubMed ID
27570973 View in PubMed
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Avian sensitivity to mortality: prioritising migratory bird species for assessment at proposed wind farms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89602
Source
J Environ Manage. 2009 Jun;90(8):2672-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Desholm Mark
Author Affiliation
Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Grenåvej, Rønde, Denmark. mde@dmu.dk
Source
J Environ Manage. 2009 Jun;90(8):2672-9
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
Birds - physiology
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Denmark
Energy-Generating Resources
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Wind
Abstract
Wind power generation is likely to constitute one of the most extensive human physical exploitation activities of European marine areas in the near future. The many millions of migrating birds that pass these man-made obstacles are protected by international obligations and the subject of public concerns. Yet some bird species are more sensitive to bird-wind turbine mortality than others. This study developed a simple and logical framework for ranking bird species with regard to their relative sensitivity to bird-wind turbine-collisions, and applied it to a data set comprising 38 avian migrant species at the Nysted offshore wind farm in Denmark. Two indicators were selected to characterize the sensitivity of each individual species: 1) relative abundance and 2) demographic sensitivity (elasticity of population growth rate to changes in adult survival). In the case-study from the Nysted offshore wind farm, birds of prey and waterbirds dominated the group of high priority species and only passerines showed a low risk of being impacted by the wind farm. Even where passerines might be present in very high numbers, they often represent insignificant segments of huge reference populations that, from a demographic point of view, are relatively insensitive to wind farm-related adult mortality. It will always be important to focus attention and direct the resources towards the most sensitive species to ensure cost-effective environmental assessments in the future, and in general, this novel index seems capable of identifying the species that are at high risk of being adversely affected by wind farms.
PubMed ID
19299065 View in PubMed
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The basis for the new wind chill temperature chart.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295211
Source
15th Conf. on Biometeorology/Aerobiology and 16th Int. Congress of Biometeorology, Kansas City, KS, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, 6B.1.
Date
2002
6B.1 THE BASIS FOR THE NEW WIND CHILL TEMPERATURE CHART Maurice Bluestein* Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana Randall Osczevski Defence R & D Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1. INTRODUCTION In
  1 document  
Author
Bluestein, Maurice
Osczevski, Randall
Source
15th Conf. on Biometeorology/Aerobiology and 16th Int. Congress of Biometeorology, Kansas City, KS, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, 6B.1.
Date
2002
Language
English
File Size
135975
Keywords
Cold Temperature
Wind chill
Wind speed
Heat loss
Documents
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98 records – page 1 of 10.