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Acellular pertussis vaccines. Efficacy and evaluation of clinical case definitions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59695
Source
Am J Dis Child. 1991 Nov;145(11):1285-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1991
Author
W C Blackwelder
J. Storsaeter
P. Olin
H O Hallander
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Md.
Source
Am J Dis Child. 1991 Nov;145(11):1285-9
Date
Nov-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Immunotherapy - standards
Infant
Pertussis Vaccine - therapeutic use
Research Design - standards
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sensitivity and specificity
Sweden - epidemiology
Whooping Cough - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
The efficacy of two acellular pertussis vaccines was estimated for various clinical case definitions, with and without the requirement of culture confirmation, from a randomized trial in Sweden. Efficacy increased with duration of coughing spasms and when the case definition included whoops or whoops plus at least nine coughing spasms a day. After deletion of clinical cases not believed to be caused by pertussis, efficacies were closer to the higher values for culture-confirmed disease. Nonspecificity of the clinical criterion "21 days of coughing spasms with whoops" resulted in estimates of predictive value for pertussis of 85% for placebo recipients and 56% for vaccinees. We conclude that laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is needed in pertussis vaccine trials. A suggested case definition is 21 days or more of coughing spasms with confirmation by culture, serologic study, or household exposure to culture-confirmed pertussis.
PubMed ID
1951222 View in PubMed
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Bordetella holmesii DNA is not detected in nasopharyngeal swabs from Finnish and Dutch patients with suspected pertussis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168274
Source
J Med Microbiol. 2006 Aug;55(Pt 8):1043-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
Mia Antila
Qiushui He
Caroline de Jong
Ingrid Aarts
Harold Verbakel
Sylvia Bruisten
Suzanne Keller
Marjo Haanperä
Johanna Mäkinen
Erkki Eerola
Matti K Viljanen
Jussi Mertsola
Anneke van der Zee
Author Affiliation
Pertussis Reference Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, Kiinamyllynkatu 13, 20520 Turku, Finland. mia.antila@tyks.fi
Source
J Med Microbiol. 2006 Aug;55(Pt 8):1043-51
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Base Sequence
Bordetella - genetics - isolation & purification
DNA Transposable Elements - genetics
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Nasopharynx - microbiology
Netherlands - epidemiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Rec A Recombinases - genetics
Sensitivity and specificity
Sequence Alignment
Whooping Cough - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
Bordetella holmesii is a Gram-negative bacterium first identified in 1995. It can cause pertussis-like symptoms in humans. B. holmesii contains insertion sequences IS481 and IS1001, two frequently used targets in the PCR diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis infections. To investigate the prevalence of B. holmesii in Finnish and Dutch patients with pertussis-like symptoms and whether B. holmesii has caused any false-positive results in diagnostic PCRs, B. holmesii-specific real-time PCRs were developed. The Finnish methods were conventional IS481 PCR and B. holmesii-specific real-time PCR (LightCycler, Roche) targeting the B. holmesii recA gene. The Dutch methods were IS481 and IS1001 PCRs with conventional or real-time formats and B. holmesii-specific real-time PCR targeting the homologue of IS1001. Of 11,319 nasopharyngeal swabs, 2804 were collected from Finnish patients from 2000 to 2003, and 8515 from Dutch patients from 1992 to 2003. B. holmesii DNA was not found in the samples analysed. The results suggest that B. holmesii is not among the causative agents of pertussis-like symptoms in Finnish and Dutch patients and thus does not in practice confound IS481 and IS1001 PCRs.
PubMed ID
16849724 View in PubMed
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Clinical and microbiologic features of children presenting with pertussis to a Canadian pediatric hospital during an eleven-year period.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217853
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994 Jul;13(7):617-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1994
Author
M. Gordon
H D Davies
R. Gold
Author Affiliation
Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994 Jul;13(7):617-22
Date
Jul-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Bordetella pertussis - isolation & purification
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine
Female
Hospitals, Pediatric - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Length of Stay
Male
Morbidity
Nasopharynx - microbiology
Retrospective Studies
Vaccination - utilization
Whooping Cough - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology - prevention & control
Abstract
To characterize the morbidity of pertussis in Canada, we did a retrospective review of all children with laboratory-confirmed pertussis seen at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, between 1980 and 1990. A total of 975 patients were identified, of which 223 (23%) were admitted to hospital. The peak incidence of disease was observed in the fall. The incidence of disease did not vary with gender. Only 41% of children admitted had the classical symptoms of pertussis (paroxysmal cough and whoop). Compared with children older than 6 months of age, children younger than 6 months of age were more likely to be hospitalized, tended to be hospitalized longer, were less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated and were more likely to require intensive care unit monitoring. Seventeen (8%) of 223 children required intensive care unit monitoring, and 12 of these children required mechanical ventilation therapy, for a duration of 3.5 +/- 0.6 days (mean +/- SD). One (0.1%) patient with secondary bacterial pneumonia died. This hospital-based study indicates that pertussis continues to be a cause of serious illness in children, particularly those younger than 6 months of age.
PubMed ID
7970950 View in PubMed
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Current status of pertussis and pertussis vaccination in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature242673
Source
Ann Clin Res. 1982 Dec;14(5-6):253-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1982
Author
J. Mertsola
M K Viljanen
O. Ruuskanen
Source
Ann Clin Res. 1982 Dec;14(5-6):253-9
Date
Dec-1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Finland
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Pertussis Vaccine - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Whooping Cough - diagnosis - epidemiology - immunology
Abstract
The pertussis vaccination programme was started in Finland in 1952. Since then the incidence of the disease has decreased. No major epidemics have occurred during the last two decades. The majority of the patients with pertussis are children of school age. Their disease is characterized by prolonged cough without whooping and it is difficult to diagnose. The patients with atypical pertussis are, however, the major reservoir for transmission of the disease to young infants, in whom it can be serious. Recently developed ELISA for measuring antipertussis IgM and IgA antibodies is a valuable aid in the diagnosis of these cases. Pertussis vaccination has been a subject of considerable controversy in recent years. The vaccine used in Finland has proved to be safe and effective. This observation emphasizes the need for careful comparison of the vaccines used in different countries.
PubMed ID
7171232 View in PubMed
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Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280599
Source
Euro Surveill. 2016 Sep 08;21(36)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-08-2016
Author
Tine Dalby
Peter Henrik Andersen
Steen Hoffmann
Source
Euro Surveill. 2016 Sep 08;21(36)
Date
Sep-08-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Bordetella pertussis - genetics - isolation & purification
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Epidemics
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Pertussis Vaccine - therapeutic use
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Population Surveillance
Whooping Cough - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0-25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cases were 20 years and older, 43% in 2013. In the study period, the highest incidence among children was among those younger than one year with incidences between 84 and 331 per 100,000 in inter-epidemic periods (mean: 161/100,000) and 435 for the epidemic in 2002. After introduction of a preschool booster in 2003, the highest incidence among children one year and older changed gradually from three to five-year-olds in 2003 to 12 to 14-year-olds in 2013. In 2013, PCR was the primary method used for laboratory-diagnosis of pertussis in Denmark, while serology was the method with the highest percentage of positive results.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27632433 View in PubMed
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[Etiology, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology in community-acquired respiratory infection in children in the Khabarovsk region]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31999
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001 Mar-Apr;(2):36-40
Publication Type
Article
Author
G N Kholodok
N V Morozova
V K Kozlov
I P Sysoletina
E B Nagovitsyna
G A Vorontsova
E P Kogut
V I Reznik
S E Ivanova
O S Kramerova
E N Ivanov
S A Pashkina
Author Affiliation
Institute of Motherhood and Childhood Protection, Far-Eastern State Medical University, Khabarovsk, Russia.
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001 Mar-Apr;(2):36-40
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Chlamydia Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Community-Acquired Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Diagnosis, Differential
Disease Outbreaks
English Abstract
Humans
Respiratory Tract Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Rural Population
Siberia - epidemiology
Vaccination
Whooping Cough - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
Clinico-epidemiological analysis and etiological verification of the outbreak of respiratory infection among school children in a rural district of the Khabarovsk territory, registered in spring 1997, were made. According to clinical signs, one-third of the patients had whooping cough, while the rest of the children exhibited the signs of respiratory infection with the symptoms of longering bronchitis. A half of the children had not been vaccinated against whooping cough, as they had been given injections of adsorbed DT vaccine with reduced antigen content. Etiologically, the diagnosis of whooping cough was confirmed in 57% of the patients with 47.4% of them having Bordetella pertussis monoinfection and 52.6% having mixed infection, mainly in combination with chlamydiosis. Whooping cough took an abnormal course under these circumstances. Treatment with erythromycin produced a good effect.
PubMed ID
11548256 View in PubMed
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Evaluation and validation of a monoclonal immunofluorescent reagent for direct detection of Bordetella pertussis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213957
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Nov;33(11):2868-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1995
Author
P. McNicol
S M Giercke
M. Gray
D. Martin
B. Brodeur
M S Peppler
T. Williams
G. Hammond
Author Affiliation
Cadham Provincial Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Nov;33(11):2868-71
Date
Nov-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antibodies, Bacterial - diagnostic use
Antibodies, Monoclonal - diagnostic use
Bordetella pertussis - growth & development
Child
DNA, Bacterial - isolation & purification
Disease Outbreaks
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Fluorescein
Fluoresceins
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct - methods
Humans
Manitoba - epidemiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Predictive value of tests
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Whooping Cough - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
An outbreak of pertussis in Manitoba, Canada, provided an opportunity to evaluate the recently developed monoclonal antibody (MAb) BL-5 for the direct detection of Bordetella pertussis. The MAb recognizes a lipooligosaccharide epitope. A total of 1,507 consecutive nasopharyngeal swabs for culture and companion smears for direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) detection were evaluated at Cadham Provincial Laboratory between September and November 1994. The cutoff for DFA positivity was four fluorescing organisms with morphology characteristic of B. pertussis. PCR analysis for B. pertussis DNA was performed on a subset of 100 smears by eluting material from the slides after DFA examination. In comparison with culture, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of BL-5 were 65.1% (41 of 63 samples), 99.6% (1,438 of 1,444 samples), 87.2% (41 of 47 samples), and 98.5% (1,438 of 1,460 samples), respectively. The sensitivity of culture compared with PCR was 45.5% (10 of 22 samples) for the subset of 100 specimens tested by both procedures. An expanded "gold standard" of positivity by culture or PCR for these 100 specimens resulted in DFA sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 32.3, 97.1, 83.3, and 76.1%, respectively. The utility of MAb BL-5 for direct detection of B. pertussis in a clinical laboratory setting has been demonstrated by this investigation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
8576336 View in PubMed
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Failure of physicians to consider the diagnosis of pertussis in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198499
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Apr;28(4):840-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1999
Author
S. Deeks
G. De Serres
N. Boulianne
B. Duval
L. Rochette
P. Déry
S. Halperin
Author Affiliation
Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Apr;28(4):840-6
Date
Apr-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Family Practice
Humans
Physician's Practice Patterns
Quebec - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Sentinel Surveillance
Whooping Cough - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
To determine the ability of physicians to make a diagnosis of pertussis and factors associated with improved diagnosis, 8,235 children from 88 child care centers and 14 elementary schools from Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, were evaluated by using a questionnaire completed by parents and a medical record review. Children must have consulted a physician to be included in the evaluation. There were 558 children meeting the surveillance case definition and 416 meeting a modified World Health Organization case definition who consulted a physician. A diagnosis of pertussis was considered in 24%-26% of children meeting either case definition, made in 12%-14%, and reported for 6%. Pertussis diagnosis was significantly associated with having a history of pertussis exposure (P or = 5 weeks (P
PubMed ID
10825048 View in PubMed
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24 records – page 1 of 3.