Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Weight loss might protect against cardiovascular events, but solid evidence is lacking.
To study the association between bariatric surgery, weight loss, and cardiovascular events.
The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study is an ongoing, nonrandomized, prospective, controlled study conducted at 25 public surgical departments and 480 primary health care centers in Sweden of 2010 obese participants who underwent bariatric surgery and 2037 contemporaneously matched obese controls who received usual care. Patients were recruited between September 1, 1987, and January 31, 2001. Date of analysis was December 31, 2009, with median follow-up of 14.7 years (range, 0-20 years). Inclusion criteria were age 37 to 60 years and a body mass index of at least 34 in men and at least 38 in women. Exclusion criteria were identical in surgery and control patients. Surgery patients underwent gastric bypass (13.2%), banding (18.7%), or vertical banded gastroplasty (68.1%), and controls received usual care in the Swedish primary health care system. Physical and biochemical examinations and database cross-checks were undertaken at preplanned intervals.
The primary end point of the SOS study (total mortality) was published in 2007. Myocardial infarction and stroke were predefined secondary end points, considered separately and combined.
Bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced number of cardiovascular deaths (28 events among 2010 patients in the surgery group vs 49 events among 2037 patients in the control group; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.76; P = .002). The number of total first time (fatal or nonfatal) cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or stroke, whichever came first) was lower in the surgery group (199 events among 2010 patients) than in the control group (234 events among 2037 patients; adjusted HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.83; P
Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Intentional weight loss results in improvement of cardiovascular risk factors, but most observational studies suggest that weight reduction is associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality. No prospective intervention studies on mortality have earlier been reported in obese subjects. The prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects Study enrolled obese subjects who either underwent bariatric surgery (n=2010) or were allocated to a contemporaneously matched, conventionally treated obese control group (n=2037). This review sums up effects on morbidity and mortality over an average of 10 years. The mean weight change of the control group was less than +/-2% over up to 15 years of weight recording. Maximum weight losses in the surgical subgroups were observed after 1-2 years. After 10 years, the weight losses from baseline were stabilized at 25, 16 and 14%, respectively. Bariatric surgery improved all traditional cardiovascular risk states except hypercholesterolemia over 10 years. There were 129 deaths in the control group compared with 101 in the surgery group. The unadjusted overall mortality was reduced by 23.7% (P=0.0419) in the surgery group (relative to controls), whereas the gender-, age- and risk factor-adjusted mortality reduction was 30.7% (P=0.0102). The most common causes of death were myocardial infarction (controls n=25, surgery n=13) and cancer (47/29). Bariatric surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss, improved risk factors and decreased overall mortality.
BACKGROUND: Mortality is lower in obese patients who have undergone surgery for obesity than in those who have not. The majority of patients in these studies have been women. Perioperative mortality is known to be higher among men, and this may counterbalance the survival advantage seen after surgery. This cohort study compared mortality among operated obese patients, non-operated obese patients and a general control cohort of men. METHODS: The study was based on record linkage between Swedish registries. An operated obese, a non-operated obese and a general control cohort were created. The two non-operated cohorts were assigned pseudosurgery dates. Data regarding preoperative and postoperative morbidity were collected, as well as mortality data. RESULTS: Hazard ratios were calculated for mortality between the cohorts adjusting for preoperative morbidity and age. Comparison of all-cause mortality for the obese surgical and non-surgical cohorts gave an adjusted mortality risk of 0.7 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 0.5 to 1.0) (P = 0.039); the adjusted mortality risk was 1.5 (95 per cent c.i. 1.1 to 2.0) (P = 0.011) when the obese surgical cohort was compared with the general control cohort. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery reduces overall mortality in obese men.
Body mass index (BMI) is a modifiable lifestyle factor that has been associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer and biochemical recurrence. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the exposure BMI at the time of a prostate cancer diagnosis and weight change after diagnosis, and the outcomes of prostate cancer progression and mortality in a large cohort study.
Data from 4,376 men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer between 1997 and 2002 were analyzed. BMI and weight change were self-reported in 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in complete-case analysis (n = 3,214) using Cox proportional hazards models.
Progression was experienced among 639 (14.6 %) of the study participants, and in total, 450 (10.3 %) deaths of any cause and 134 (3.1 %) prostate cancer-specific deaths were recorded during follow-up. Obese men had a 47 % increased rate of overall mortality compared to normal weight men (HR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.03-2.10). No statistically significant associations were found for BMI and prostate cancer progression or prostate cancer-specific mortality. A weight loss >5 % after diagnosis almost doubled the rate of overall mortality compared to maintaining a stable weight (HR 1.94, 95 % CI 1.41-2.66), while a weight gain >5 % was associated with an almost doubled increased rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.18-3.16).
Being obese was associated with an increased rate of overall mortality, and gaining weight after a prostate cancer diagnosis was associated with an increased rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality.
The objective of this population-based case-control study was to determine the independent association between height, weight at different ages and adult weight change on hip fracture risk, and the joint effects of these factors. The study base comprised postmenopausal women 50-81 years of age who resided in six counties in Sweden during the period October 1993 to February 1995. The study included 1,327 cases with an incident hip fracture and 3,262 randomly selected controls. We obtained information on body measures and other factors possibly related to hip fracture through mailed questionnaires and telephone interviews. Height and weight change were dominant risk factors. Tall women (> or = 169 cm) had an odds ratio of 3.16 (95% confidence interval = 2.47-4.05) compared with women shorter than 159 cm. Weight gain during adult life was strongly protective: compared with those with moderate weight change (-3 to 3 kg), those with substantial weight gain (> or =12 kg) had a markedly decreased risk of hip fracture (odds ratio = 0.35; 95% confidence interval = 0.27-0.45), whereas weight loss was associated with an increased risk. Weight change retained important effects among all subjects, even after controlling for current weight and weight at age 18. In contrast, among women who gained weight, the separate effects of current weight and weight at age 18 were small or absent. Among women who lost weight, both current weight and weight at age 18 had effects that remained after controlling for weight change. Adult weight change and height are dominant body size risk factors for hip fracture. Weight loss vs weight changes demarcates different patterns of hip fracture risk.
There is very little research exploring the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on the patient's partner. The aim of the present study was to investigate longitudinally whether male partners of female RYGB patients were affected in terms of BMI, sleep quality, body dissatisfaction, depression, and anxiety.
Thirty-seven women, with partners who were willing to participate, were recruited from RYGB waiting lists at five Swedish hospitals. Data collection took place during two home visits, 3 months before and 9 months after RYGB surgery. Anthropometrical data were documented, and both women and men completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ). The men also completed the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS).
The men's BMI changes between the two time points that were analysed using general estimating equation (GEE) regression. Their BMI decreased significantly (ß?=?-0.9, p?=?0.004). The change was more pronounced in the 26 men who had a baseline BMI of =25 (ß?=?-1.4, p?
Little is known about eating behaviour and meal pattern subsequent to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), knowledge important for the nutritional care process. The objective of the study was to obtain basic information of how meal size, eating rate, meal frequency and eating behaviour change upon the RYGB surgery.
Voluntary chosen meal size and eating rate were measured in a longitudinal, within subject, cohort study of 43 patients, 31 women and 12 men, age 42.6 (s.d. 9.7) years, body mass index (BMI) 44.5 (4.9) kg m(-2). Thirty-one non-obese subjects, 37.8 (13.6) years, BMI 23.7 (2.7) kg m(-2) served as a reference group. All subjects completed a meal pattern questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21).
Six weeks postoperatively meal size was 42% of the preoperative meal size, (P
Coeliac disease is associated with an increased risk of malignant lymphomas. We investigated the importance of coeliac disease characteristics and diet compliance for risk of lymphoma.
In a nested case-control design, we identified 59 patients with lymphoma and 137 matched controls from a population-based cohort of 11,650 inpatients with coeliac disease. We assessed coeliac disease characteristics at diagnosis and dietary compliance collected prospectively from medical records during follow-up.
Poor compliance was not significantly associated with risk of lymphoma overall (odds ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 0.78-4.31) nor of lymphoma subtypes. Risk estimates differed by subtype; risk of T-cell lymphoma (odds ratio 1.01, confidence interval 0.32-3.15) or intestinal lymphoma (odds ratio 0.66, confidence interval 0.17-2.56) was unelevated, whereas there was an indication of a risk increase of B-cell lymphoma (odds ratio 4.74, confidence interval 0.89-25.3) or extraintestinal lymphoma (odds ratio 3.00, confidence interval 0.73-12.3) following poor compliance. History of weight loss (odds ratio 2.89, confidence interval 1.00-8.29) at coeliac disease diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of lymphoma when excluding tumours occurring with short latency (
AIM. A retrospective study was carried out in the greater Wellington area. The objectives of this study were to identify an incidence rate, presenting symptoms and clinical features of coeliac disease. METHODS. Histology archives from the Wellington hospital department of pathology over the last eight years (1985-92) were retrieved and analysed. Abnormal duodenal and jejunal histological sections were reviewed. One hundred and seventy seven biopsy specimens from 127 patients were identified for further study from a total of 367 abnormal duodenal and jejunal biopsy specimens. Diagnosis of coeliac disease was based on information from hospital notes, biopsy request forms, and histology reports. Diagnostic criteria used for coeliac disease were evidence of malabsorption, abnormal histology consistent with coeliac disease and clinical improvement following a gluten free diet. RESULTS. Thirty eight patients were diagnosed with coeliac disease 1985-92 in a population of 267,252. Of these 38 only four were children (0-12 years). Overall incidence was 1.8 per 100,000. The estimated overall prevalence was 70 per 100,000, with 14 per 100,000 for children. The live birth rate was 0.1 per 1000. There was a female predominance of 3:1. Patients presented with a diverse range of problems, most commonly diarrhoea, anaemia, weight loss and steatorrhoea. Three out of the 6 patients who had a single problem had anaemia. CONCLUSIONS. The study has demonstrated an overall incidence and prevalence of coeliac disease in the Wellington region similar to overseas figures. However only 11% of the total were children, which is a very low proportion compared to the 50% reported in Sweden and 25% in Edinburgh. Patients presented with a wide range of clinical features. The threshold for small bowel biopsy should be relatively low in any patient considered to have clinical features of malabsorption.