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24-h sheltering behaviour of individually kept horses during Swedish summer weather.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276827
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2015 Aug 20;57:45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-20-2015
Author
Elke Hartmann
Richard J Hopkins
Claudia von Brömssen
Kristina Dahlborn
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2015 Aug 20;57:45
Date
Aug-20-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - methods - physiology
Animal Welfare - methods - physiology
Animals - methods - physiology
Behavior, Animal - methods - physiology
Circadian Rhythm - methods - physiology
Female - methods - physiology
Horses - methods - physiology
Housing, Animal - methods - physiology
Insects - methods - physiology
Male - methods - physiology
Seasons - methods - physiology
Sweden - methods - physiology
Weather - methods - physiology
Abstract
Provision of shelter for horses kept on summer pasture is rarely considered in welfare guidelines, perhaps because the benefits of shelter in warm conditions are poorly documented scientifically. For cattle, shade is a valued resource during summer and can mitigate the adverse effects of warm weather on well-being and performance. We found in a previous study that horses utilized shelters frequently in summer. A shelter with a roof and closed on three sides (shelter A) was preferred and can reduce insect pressure whereas a shelter with roof and open on three sides was not utilized. However, shelter A restricts the all-round view of a horse, which may be important for horses as flight animals. Therefore, we studied whether a shelter with roof, where only the upper half of the rear wall was closed (shelter B), would be utilized while maintaining insect protection properties and satisfying the horses' sense for security. A third shelter was offered with walls but no roof (shelter C) to evaluate whether the roof itself is an important feature from the horse's perspective. Eight Warmblood horses were tested each for 2?days, kept individually for 24?h in two paddocks with access to shelters A and B, or shelters A and C, respectively. Shelter use was recorded continuously during the night (1800-2400?h, 0200-0600?h) and the following day (0900-1600?h), and insect defensive behaviour (e.g., tail swish) in instantaneous scan samples at 5-min intervals during daytime.
Seven horses used both shelters A and B, but when given the choice between shelters A and C, shelter C was scarcely visited. There was no difference in duration of shelter use between night (105.8???53.6?min) and day (100.8???53.8, P?=?0.829). Daytime shelter use had a significant effect on insect defensive behaviours (P?=?0.027). The probability of performing these behaviours was lowest when horses used shelter A compared to being outside (P?=?0.038).
Horses only utilized shelters with a roof whilst a shelter with roof and closed on three sides had the best potential to lower insect disturbance during daytime in summer.
Notes
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Cites: J Anim Sci. 2014 Apr;92(4):1708-1724492578
Cites: J Anim Sci. 2015 Feb;93(2):802-1026020760
PubMed ID
26289447 View in PubMed
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Accident risk of road and weather conditions on different road types.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297850
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2019 Jan; 122:181-188
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2019
Author
Fanny Malin
Ilkka Norros
Satu Innamaa
Author Affiliation
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Vuorimiehentie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland. Electronic address: fanny.malin@vtt.fi.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2019 Jan; 122:181-188
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Built Environment - statistics & numerical data
Finland
Humans
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Weather
Abstract
This study was designed to investigate the relative accident risk of different road weather conditions and combinations of conditions. The study applied a recently developed method which is based on the notion of Palm probability, originating in the theory of random point processes, which in this case corresponds to picking a random vehicle from the traffic. The method consists of calculating the Palm distribution of different conditions and comparing it with the distribution of the same conditions as seen by the accidents. The condition affects the accident risk statistically, when these two distributions differ. The study included all police reported single- and multi-vehicle accidents (N?=?10,646) occurring on 43 main roads in Finland during the years 2014-2016. A major contribution of this paper is the demonstration of the method on national scale by using estimated hourly traffic volumes on road segments instead of measured ones, which would have been available for few roads only. Accident risks are commonly examined in relation to traffic volume. This paper includes the speed of the traffic and thus, the paper examines accident risk in relation to the time spent on the road segment in certain conditions. The hour-level weather and road condition data per segment were obtained from nearby road weather stations. The relative accident risks were increased for poor road weather conditions; however, they were highest for icy rain and slippery and very slippery road conditions. When comparing the relative accident risk based on road type, the results showed that the risk in poor weather and road conditions was higher on motorways compared to two-lane and multiple-lane roads even though the overall risk was lower on motorways. Furthermore, the corresponding relative accident risks were generally higher for single-vehicle accidents compared to multi-vehicle accidents.
PubMed ID
30384088 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban snowpack.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature232700
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1988 Aug 1;74:133-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-1988
Author
A. Boom
J. Marsalek
Author Affiliation
Department of Water pollution Control, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1988 Aug 1;74:133-48
Date
Aug-1-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Humans
Neoplasms - chemically induced
Ontario
Polycyclic Compounds - analysis - toxicity
Risk factors
Snow
Urban Population
Weather
Abstract
Accumulations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a snowpack were studied in an industrial urban area with numerous anthropogenic sources of PAHs. Average PAH loadings stored in the snowpack were determined, plotted on a map of the study area, and arenal distribution approximated by isoloading contours. The loading contours exhibited a marked elongation in the direction of prevailing winds. The unit-area deposition rates observed in the study area exceeded the typical rates reported for other urban areas, and were the highest immediately downwind of a steel plant. PAH levels in snowmelt were well below the freshwater aquatic life toxicity criteria, but exceeded both the WHO drinking water standard and the U.S. EPA carcinogenic criteria at the 10(-5) risk level.
PubMed ID
3222690 View in PubMed
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Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Aug 15;125(4):338
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-15-1981
Author
P K Basu
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Aug 15;125(4):338
Date
Aug-15-1981
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acids - adverse effects
Animals
Canada
Eye Diseases - etiology
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Rabbits
Rain
Swimming
Weather
Notes
Cites: Can J Ophthalmol. 1978 Oct;13(4):247-933753
PubMed ID
7272884 View in PubMed
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Acknowledging the weather-health link.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214254
Source
CMAJ. 1995 Oct 1;153(7):941-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-1995
Author
J L Bart
D A Bourque
Author Affiliation
Bathurst-Steeles Health Centre, North York, ON.
Source
CMAJ. 1995 Oct 1;153(7):941-4
Date
Oct-1-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Clinical Medicine
Germany
Health education
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health status
Humans
Morbidity
Physician's Role
Research
Weather
Abstract
The impact of weather on health is generally overlooked by physicians. Possible reasons for this include lack of training and insufficient awareness of the significant body of research on human biometeorology. The authors argue that, in the absence of clearly demonstrable causal connections, statistical associations between weather phenomena and health problems should be enough to influence clinical practice. Physicians in Germany make use of daily bulletins from the national weather service to advise patients on the management of common health problems that seem to be exacerbated by certain weather conditions. The authors urge Canadian doctors to follow the lead of their European colleagues by increasing their awareness of the relation between weather and health.
Notes
Cites: Int J Biometeorol. 1991 Jun;35(1):10-71917121
Cites: Hum Toxicol. 1989 Sep;8(5):355-82807303
Cites: Hum Biol. 1991 Oct;63(5):711-81916744
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1991 Oct 1;115(7):505-121883119
Cites: Br J Cancer. 1991 Jul;64(1):149-531854614
Cites: Respiration. 1991;58(1):21-51852977
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1986 Nov;124(5):711-83532766
Cites: Am J Hypertens. 1991 May;4(5 Pt 1):422-62069775
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1990 Sep;19(3):559-632262248
Cites: Prev Med. 1990 Nov;19(6):614-222263572
Cites: J Affect Disord. 1990 Dec;20(4):249-502149730
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1990 Dec;19(4):889-932084017
Cites: J Neural Transm Gen Sect. 1991;84(1-2):103-171675857
Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991 Jul;144(1):31-52064137
Erratum In: Can Med Assoc J 1995 Dec 1;153(11):1569
PubMed ID
7553497 View in PubMed
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Action spectra affect variability of the climatology of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation on cloud-free days.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108780
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013 Dec;157(4):491-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
D. Grifoni
G. Zipoli
F. Sabatini
G. Messeri
L. Bacci
Author Affiliation
CNR - Institute of Biometeorology, Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Sesto Fiorentino, FI 50019, Italy.
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013 Dec;157(4):491-8
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atmosphere
Cataract - epidemiology
Climate
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Erythema - epidemiology
Eye - radiation effects
Germany
Humans
Italy
Keratitis - epidemiology
Norway
Plants - radiation effects
Quality Control
Seasons
Ultraviolet Rays
Vitamin D - biosynthesis
Weather
Abstract
Action spectrum (AS) describes the relative effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in producing biological effects and allows spectral UV irradiance to be weighted in order to compute biologically effective UV radiation (UVBE). The aim of this research was to study the seasonal and latitudinal distribution over Europe of daily UVBE doses responsible for various biological effects on humans and plants. Clear sky UV radiation spectra were computed at 30-min time intervals for the first day of each month of the year for Rome, Potsdam and Trondheim using a radiative transfer model fed with climatological data. Spectral data were weighted using AS for erythema, vitamin D synthesis, cataract and photokeratitis for humans, while the generalised plant damage and the plant damage AS were used for plants. The daily UVBE doses for the above-mentioned biological processes were computed and are analysed in this study. The patterns of variation due to season (for each location) and latitude (for each date) resulted as being specific for each adopted AS. The biological implications of these results are briefly discussed highlighting the importance of a specific UVBE climatology for each biological process.
PubMed ID
23843425 View in PubMed
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Activity pattern of a selected group of school occupants and their family members in Helsinki-Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125638
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2012 May 15;425:289-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2012
Author
Tareq Hussein
Pauli Paasonen
Markku Kulmala
Author Affiliation
University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, P. O. Box 48, FI-00014 UHEL, Helsinki, Finland. tareq.hussein@helsinki.fi
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2012 May 15;425:289-92
Date
May-15-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Family
Female
Finland
Human Activities
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Schools
Time Factors
Weather
Young Adult
Abstract
The daily time-spent in different environments is an important factor in calculation of personal exposure to air pollutants. Despite this importance, the amount of research done on this topic is rather limited, especially in North Europe where the climate is rather cold. In this study, we gathered detailed information via a standard questionnaire to report the residence time and place of 167 subjects (between 2 and 93 years old) lived in Helsinki during three time periods in winter and spring 2009. Subjects spent 81%-92% of their time indoors and up to ~15% of their time outdoors. The daily time-spent in different environments was affected by several factors: ambient temperature, type of day (workday or weekend/holiday), gender, and age. Therefore, the differences occur individually and can be explained by these factors. For example, subjects spent more time at home on weekends than workdays because obviously the majority of our subjects did not have work on weekends. The time-spent at kindergarten/school/work increased with age until retirement. Females spent more time at home than males. After all, the activity pattern found in this study is rather similar to those previously reported in Germany and North America.
PubMed ID
22464956 View in PubMed
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Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15434
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2001
Author
R W Atkinson
H R Anderson
J. Sunyer
J. Ayres
M. Baccini
J M Vonk
A. Boumghar
F. Forastiere
B. Forsberg
G. Touloumi
J. Schwartz
K. Katsouyanni
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom. atkinson@sghms.ac.uk
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Date
Nov-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
England - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Italy - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Particle Size
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data - trends
Population Surveillance
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Spain - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data - trends
Weather
Abstract
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
PubMed ID
11734437 View in PubMed
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Adverse health events associated with the 1998 ice storm: report of hospital surveillance of the eastern Ontario Health Unit region.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200667
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1999 Sep 1;25(17):145-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-1999

393 records – page 1 of 40.