Six cereal/legume mixtures were developed with the aid of computer-assisted optimization software from cereal and legume staples indigenous to the West African sub-region. The mixtures had 45-50% maize, 35-40% decorticated cowpeas and either blanched peanuts or decorticated soybeans as a source of lipid and complementary amino acids. Three processing schemes involving roasting, amylase digestion and extrusion cooking were employed. The proportion of ingredients in each cereal/legume blend was based on meeting the nutrient requirement of the 0.5-0.9-year-old infant and cost considerations. Nutrient composition of the blends (proximate, amino acid, mineral and vitamin composition) indicated that these formulations were adequate nutritionally as weaning supplements (Mensa-Wilmot et al, 2000a,2000b). These formulations were evaluated by mothers of weanling children based on their preferences with respect to color, flavor, texture and willingness to purchase the product assessed. A total of 133 one-on-one interviews and 23 group discussions were conducted (involving 6-12 respondents) with selected Ghanaian women. The mothers found the convenience of a weaning food made from local staples that could be processed on village/market scale very attractive.
This study aimed to examine anaesthetists' perceptions of facilitative weaning from the mechanical ventilator in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Explorative qualitative interviews in a phenomenographic reference frame with a purposive sample of 14 eligible anaesthetists from four different ICUs with at least one year of clinical experience of ICU and of ventilator weaning.
Four categories of anaesthetists' perceptions of facilitative decision-making strategies for ventilator weaning were identified. These were the instrumental, the interacting, the process-oriented and the structural strategies" for ventilator weaning. The findings refer to a supportive multidisciplinary holistic ICU quality of care. Choice of strategy for ventilator weaning was flexible and individually tailored to the patients'.
Choice of strategy was flexible and individually adjustable. Introduction of evidence-based guidelines from ventilator weaning is necessary in the ICU. The guidelines should also cover the responsibilities of various professional groups. Regular evaluations of methods and strategies used in practice need to be implemented. This may facilitate decision-making strategies for ventilator weaning in practice at the ICU. Greater attention needs to focus on family members' experiences. The strategies should be an integral part of continuous staff training.
In 1993, the Norwegian National Nutrition Council recommended that solid food be introduced to breast-fed infants gradually between the age of four and six months, and not later than six months. A critical appraisal of the literature reveals that the alleged inadequacy of the volume of breast milk after 4-6 months is an artifact caused by the inevitable fall of milk yield induced by supplementation and unnatural time scheduling of breast-feeding. The council has overlooked evidence showing that voluntary exclusive breast feeding on demand provides enough energy and nutrients to most infants for at least nine months. There is no documented need for iron-rich solid food before the age of 7-9 months. Mothers who wish to breast-feed exclusively after the age of six months should therefore be encouraged to do so. Solid food should not be emphatically recommended until the infant is nine months old.
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1994 Dec 10;114(30):3704-57825156
We analysed whether 12-month-old Swedish infants who have been fed iron-fortified and relatively zinc-rich foods, according to current recommendations, have adequate iron and zinc status. A cohort of 76 healthy, full term Swedish infants was followed regarding feeding habits and growth from birth to 12 months of age, when haemoglobin, iron and zinc status were evaluated. Twenty-six percent of the infants had low (
OBJECTIVES, DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Earlier results on the effect of breastfeeding on the one hand, and non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier and/or digit sucking) on the other, on the orofacial development of infants are inconclusive. Thus we studied the prevalence of malocclusions and their relationship to the duration of breastfeeding and to non-nutritive sucking habits in a group of randomly selected 3-year-old children (n = 148).
Posterior crossbite was detected in 13%, anterior open bite in 18% and large overjet (> 3 mm) in 26% of the children. The proportion of children with anterior vertical open bite was significantly larger among children with non-nutritive sucking habits than among the other children (P
Diarrhoea and excessive secretion from the cervical apocrine glands in young, suckling mink kits is a well-known, but poorly defined, syndrome often referred to as "sticky", "greasy", or "wet" kits. We have performed a case-control study, at farm level as well as at mink kit level, in Denmark and Sweden to investigate whether enteric virus infections may be a risk factor in the development of pre-weaning diarrhoea. Tissue samples from the enteric tract of 180 sacrificed mink kits were analysed histologically. Faecal contents were examined by electron microscopy (EM). Astrovirus was detected in abundance and found to be a significant risk factor both at farm level (OR=21.60, p
To date, baby-led weaning (BLW) has not been examined in a Canadian population. This research investigated common BLW practices and compared associated knowledge and perceptions of practicing mothers and health care professionals (HCPs).
Sixty-five mothers practicing BLW and 33 HCPs were surveyed using 2 online questionnaires. Mothers were recruited through the Newfoundland and Labrador BLW Facebook page and HCPs via email at 2 regional health authorities.
Mothers described BLW in terms of food shape and consistency (whole, solid); however, in practice, some mothers offered puréed foods such as infant cereals. More HCPs than mothers indicated choking, inadequate energy, and iron intake as concerns. Mothers relied on the Facebook page over HCPs for BLW information and support. Although all practicing mothers would recommend BLW to others, less than half (48.5%) of HCPs would support it in their practice.
Mothers following BLW vary greatly in their experiences and adherence to BLW. They view the practice and its disadvantages very differently than HCPs. Although most HCPs were aware of BLW, few were familiar with specific practices. HCPs may benefit from a greater understanding of BLW to provide guidance to the growing number of mothers following this practice.
The effect of exclusive breast-feeding throughout the first birch pollen season of life was examined in 59 children compared to 67 children on cow milk formula and to 27 children weaned to cow milk-based formula during their first birch season. The infants were about 3 months of age in their first birch season, and allergy to birch pollen was evaluated at 5 years of age by history and prick and provocation tests. Breast-feeding throughout the first birch season did not prevent birch pollen allergy; a similar birch allergy prevalence of about 10% was found in children initially fed on human or cow milk. Instead, weaning to cow milk-based formula during the first birch season seemed to protect from subsequent development of birch pollen allergy. Analogous results were obtained regarding allergy to grass pollen. This unexpected finding may be related to the immunologic stress on the young infant provided by introduction of cow milk proteins at an early age.