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Wastewater treatment and public health in Nunavut: a microbial risk assessment framework for the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297768
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32860-32872
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Nov-2018
Author
Kiley Daley
Rob Jamieson
Daniel Rainham
Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Water Resources Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. kiley.daley@dal.ca.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32860-32872
Date
Nov-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Bays
Drinking Water - microbiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Gastrointestinal Diseases - etiology
Humans
Inuits
Nunavut
Public Health
Risk Assessment - methods
Sanitation
Waste Disposal, Fluid - methods
Waste Water - microbiology
Waterborne Diseases - etiology
Wetlands
Abstract
Wastewater management in Canadian Arctic communities is influenced by several geographical factors including climate, remoteness, population size, and local food-harvesting practices. Most communities use trucked collection services and basic treatment systems, which are capable of only low-level pathogen removal. These systems are typically reliant solely on natural environmental processes for treatment and make use of existing lagoons, wetlands, and bays. They are operated in a manner such that partially treated wastewater still containing potentially hazardous microorganisms is released into the terrestrial and aquatic environment at random times. Northern communities rely heavily on their local surroundings as a source of food, drinking water, and recreation, thus creating the possibility of human exposure to wastewater effluent. Human exposure to microbial hazards present in municipal wastewater can lead to acute gastrointestinal illness or more severe disease. Although estimating the actual disease burdens associated with wastewater exposures in Arctic communities is challenging, waterborne- and sanitation-related illness is believed to be comparatively higher than in other parts of Canada. This review offers a conceptual framework and evaluation of current knowledge to enable the first microbial risk assessment of exposure scenarios associated with food-harvesting and recreational activities in Arctic communities, where simplified wastewater systems are being operated.
PubMed ID
28224339 View in PubMed
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