There is considered the history of the development of legislative requirements to the regulation of the quality of drinking water in different countries and international organizations during the period from 1912 to the present time. In terms of comparative analysis there is analyzed the current state of regulatory frameworks of the Russian Federation, WHO, EU, Finland, the UK, Singapore, Australia, Japan, China, Nigeria, the United States and Canada in the field of providing favorable conditions of population drinking water use. There has been noted the significant progress in standardization of the content of the biogenic elements and chemical pollution of drinking water in the absence of uniform requirements to the composition and properties of drinking water globally, that is bound to the need to take into account the national peculiarities of drinking water supply within the separate countries. As promising directions for improving regulation of drinking water quality there are noted: the development of new standards for prioritized water pollution, periodic review ofstandards after appearance of the new scientific data on the biological action of substances, the use of the concept of risk, the harmonization of the normative values and the assessment of the possibility of introduction into the practice the one more criterion of profitableness of population water use--the bioenergetic state of the water.
The aim of this study was, firstly, to determine what methods of delivering fluorides might be acceptable to Finnish municipalities and, secondly, to investigate which characteristics of the municipalities best explain the variation in acceptability of fluorides. A sample, composed of 46 Finnish municipalities and representing the communes according to number of inhabitants was drawn and a mail survey sent to decision-makers (n = 1922). In this survey we assessed the characteristics of each commune and its decision-makers and asked how acceptable various methods of fluoride delivery were. The acceptability of the various methods was: toothpaste 95%, gels and varnishes 81%, rinses 63%, salt 48%, piped water 33%, and milk 11%. In industrialized communes these methods of delivery were usually slightly better accepted than in non-industrialized areas. Acceptability of fluorides seemed to differ in the various regions of Finland, Uusimaa region being the most liberal towards use of fluorides. Members of the labour parties seemed to accept piped water containing fluoride and fluoridated milk significantly more often than did conservatives. Among decision-makers, the various methods of delivery were best accepted by dentists, physicians and members of health councils.
BACKGROUND: During the Soviet period, authorities in the USSR invested heavily in collective farming and modernization of living conditions in rural areas. However, many problems remained, including poor access to many basic amenities such as water. Since then, the situation is likely to have changed; economic decline has coincided with migration and widening social inequalities, potentially increasing disparities within and between countries. AIM: To examine access to water and sanitation and its determinants in urban and rural areas of eight former Soviet countries. METHODS: A series of nationally representative surveys in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Ukraine was undertaken in 2001, covering 18,428 individuals (aged 18+ years). RESULTS: The percentage of respondents living in rural areas varied between 27 and 59% among countries. There are wide urban-rural differences in access to amenities. Even in urban areas, only about 90% of respondents had access to cold running water in their home (60% in Kyrgyzstan). In rural areas, less than one-third had cold running water in their homes (44% in Russia, under 10% in Kyrgyzstan and Moldova). Between one-third and one-half of rural respondents in some countries (such as Belarus, Kazakhstan and Moldova) obtained their water from wells and similar sources. Access to hot running water inside the homes was an exception in rural households, reflecting the lack of modern heating methods in villages. Similarly, indoor access to toilets is common in urban areas but rare in rural areas. Access to all amenities was better in Russia compared with elsewhere in the region. Indoor access to cold water was significantly more common among rural residents living in apartments, and in settlements served by asphalt roads rather than dirt roads. People with more assets or income and living with other people were significantly more likely to have water on tap. In addition, people who had moved in more recently were more likely to have an indoor water supply. CONCLUSIONS: This was the largest single study of its kind undertaken in this region, and demonstrates that a significant number of people living in rural parts of the former Soviet Union do not have indoor access to running water and sanitation. There are significant variations among countries, with the worse situation in central Asia and the Caucasus, and the best situation in Russia. Access to water strongly correlates with socio-economic characteristics. These findings suggest a need for sustained investment in rebuilding basic infrastructure in the region, and monitoring the impact of living conditions on health.
Acid precipitation affects the solubility of several metals in aquatic systems and in soil. Cadmium levels in tap water samples from geological areas having low resistance to acidic pollution were significantly higher than those in samples from a neighbouring reference area where there was a different geological structure. The median cadmium levels and pH values were 0.14 microgram l-1 and 5.6 respectively, for the acidic areas compared with 0.07 microgram l-1 and 6.4 respectively for the reference area. Further, there was a significant inverse relationship between both cadmium and lead contents and the pH values of the samples. The mobility of the metals was thus dependent on the acidity. The blood lead levels in 195 subjects from the acidic areas were lower than those in 91 subjects from the reference area (medians 60 vs. 70 micrograms l-1); no significant differences were found in blood cadmium or blood mercury levels. Subjects in the acidic areas had lower plasma selenium levels than those from the reference area (medians 85 vs. 90 micrograms l-1); the difference was mainly attributed to subjects with private wells. The data may indicate a negative effect of the acidic pollution on selenium intake via water and/or foods. There was also a positive relationship between intake of fish on the one hand and blood mercury and plasma selenium on the other, which is in accordance with the role of fish as a source of these metals.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the associations of acidity and concentration of selected minerals in household tap water with the risk of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We designed a population-based case-control study with 64 cases of type 1 diabetes and 250 randomly selected control subjects. Acidity, color, and mineral content were measured in tap water from each participant's household. RESULTS: Tap water pH 6.2-6.9 was associated with a fourfold higher risk of type 1 diabetes compared with pH > or =7.7 (OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.52-9.15). This result was similar after exclusion of individuals with the highly protective HLA-DQB1*0602 allele, but adjustment for maternal education, urban/rural residence, sex, and age tended to strengthen the estimated association. Higher tap water concentration of zinc was associated with lower risk of type 1 diabetes after adjustment for pH and other possible confounders, but the overall association was strictly not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the possibility that quality of drinking water influences the risk of type 1 diabetes. The possible mechanisms by which water acidity or mineral content may be involved in the etiology of type 1 diabetes remain unknown, but the mechanisms are most likely indirect and may involve an influence on survival of microorganisms in the water.
BACKGROUND. Acute fluoride poisoning produces a clinical syndrome characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and paresthesias. In May 1992, excess fluoride in one of two public water systems serving a village in Alaska caused an outbreak of acute fluoride poisoning. METHODS. We surveyed residents, measured their urinary fluoride concentrations, and analyzed their serum-chemistry profiles. A case of fluoride poisoning was defined as an illness consisting of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or numbness or tingling of the face or extremities that began between May 21 and 23. RESULTS. Among 47 residents studied who drank water obtained on May 21, 22, or 23 from the implicated well, 43 (91 percent) had an illness that met the case definition, as compared with only 6 of 21 residents (29 percent) who drank water obtained from the implicated well at other times and 2 of 94 residents (2 percent) served by the other water system. We estimated that 296 people were poisoned; 1 person died. Four to five days after the outbreak, 10 of the 25 case patients who were tested, but none of the 15 control subjects, had elevated urinary fluoride concentrations. The case patients had elevated serum fluoride concentrations and other abnormalities consistent with fluoride poisoning, such as elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations. The fluoride concentration of a water sample from the implicated well was 150 mg per liter, and that of a sample from the other system was 1.1 mg per liter. Failure to monitor and respond appropriately to elevated fluoride concentrations, an unreliable control system, and a mechanism that allowed fluoride concentrate to enter the well led to this outbreak. CONCLUSIONS. Inspection of public water systems and monitoring of fluoride concentrations are needed to prevent outbreaks of fluoride poisoning.
The AMAP Human Health Assessment Group has developed different adaptation strategies through a long-term collaboration with all Arctic countries. Different adaptation strategies are discussed, with examples mainly from native population groups in Alaska.
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:57-93 PMID 16154621