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28 records – page 1 of 3.

[100 years of drinking water regulation. Retrospective review, current situation and prospects].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104086
Source
Gig Sanit. 2014 Mar-Apr;(2):5-18
Publication Type
Article
Author
Yu A Rakhmanin
G N Krasovsky
N A Egorova
R I Mikhailova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2014 Mar-Apr;(2):5-18
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drinking Water - standards
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Retrospective Studies
Russia
Water Quality - standards
Water Supply - history - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Abstract
There is considered the history of the development of legislative requirements to the regulation of the quality of drinking water in different countries and international organizations during the period from 1912 to the present time. In terms of comparative analysis there is analyzed the current state of regulatory frameworks of the Russian Federation, WHO, EU, Finland, the UK, Singapore, Australia, Japan, China, Nigeria, the United States and Canada in the field of providing favorable conditions of population drinking water use. There has been noted the significant progress in standardization of the content of the biogenic elements and chemical pollution of drinking water in the absence of uniform requirements to the composition and properties of drinking water globally, that is bound to the need to take into account the national peculiarities of drinking water supply within the separate countries. As promising directions for improving regulation of drinking water quality there are noted: the development of new standards for prioritized water pollution, periodic review ofstandards after appearance of the new scientific data on the biological action of substances, the use of the concept of risk, the harmonization of the normative values and the assessment of the possibility of introduction into the practice the one more criterion of profitableness of population water use--the bioenergetic state of the water.
PubMed ID
25051731 View in PubMed
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Are horse paddocks threatening water quality through excess loading of nutrients?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264846
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Jan 1;147:306-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2015
Author
Mohammed Masud Parvage
Barbro Ulén
Holger Kirchmann
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Jan 1;147:306-13
Date
Jan-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Animal Husbandry - methods
Animals
Horses
Housing, Animal - statistics & numerical data
Linear Models
Nitrogen - analysis
Phosphorus - analysis
Soil - chemistry
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Quality - standards
Abstract
The Baltic Sea is one of the most eutrophied water bodies in northern Europe and more than 50% of its total anthropogenic waterborne phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) loads derive from agricultural sources. Sweden is the second largest contributor of waterborne N and the third largest contributor of waterborne P to the Baltic Sea. Horse farms now occupy almost 10% of Swedish agricultural land, but are not well investigated with regard to their environmental impact. In this study, potential P, N and carbon (C) leaching losses were measured from two representative horse paddock topsoils (0-20 cm; a clay and a loamy sand) following simulated rainfall events in the laboratory. Results showed that the leachate concentrations and net release of P, N and dissolved organic C (DOC) from paddock topsoils were highest in feeding and excretion areas and considerably higher from the loamy sand than the clay paddock topsoil. Leaching losses of dissolved reactive P (DRP) were significantly (p
PubMed ID
25284798 View in PubMed
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Benefits of Water Safety Plans: microbiology, compliance, and public health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123644
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Jul 17;46(14):7782-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-17-2012
Author
Maria J Gunnarsdottir
Sigurdur M Gardarsson
Mark Elliott
Gudrun Sigmundsdottir
Jamie Bartram
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iceland, Hjardarhaga 2-6, 107 Reykjavik, Iceland. mariag@hi.is
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Jul 17;46(14):7782-9
Date
Jul-17-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Colony Count, Microbial
Diarrhea - epidemiology
Drinking Water - microbiology - standards
Guideline Adherence - standards
Heterotrophic Processes
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Logistic Models
Public Health - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Safety - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Control, Formal
Water Microbiology - standards
Water Quality - standards
Water Supply - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
The Water Safety Plan (WSP) methodology, which aims to enhance safety of drinking water supplies, has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004. WSPs are now used worldwide and are legally required in several countries. However, there is limited systematic evidence available demonstrating the effectiveness of WSPs on water quality and health. Iceland was one of the first countries to legislate the use of WSPs, enabling the analysis of more than a decade of data on impact of WSP. The objective was to determine the impact of WSP implementation on regulatory compliance, microbiological water quality, and incidence of clinical cases of diarrhea. Surveillance data on water quality and diarrhea were collected and analyzed. The results show that HPC (heterotrophic plate counts), representing microbiological growth in the water supply system, decreased statistically significant with fewer incidents of HPC exceeding 10 cfu per mL in samples following WSP implementation and noncompliance was also significantly reduced (p
PubMed ID
22679926 View in PubMed
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Categorical performance characteristics of method ISO 7899-2 and indicator value of intestinal enterococci for bathing water quality monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300179
Source
J Water Health. 2018 Oct; 16(5):711-723
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Ananda Tiwari
Anna-Maria Hokajärvi
Jorge W Santo Domingo
Ari Kauppinen
Michael Elk
Hodon Ryu
Balamuralikrishna Jayaprakash
Tarja Pitkänen
Author Affiliation
The National Institute for Health and Welfare, Expert Microbiology Unit, P.O Box 95, 70701 Kuopio, Finland E-mail: tarja.pitkanen@thl.fi.
Source
J Water Health. 2018 Oct; 16(5):711-723
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Enterococcus
Enterococcus faecium
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Finland
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Water Microbiology - standards
Water Quality - standards
Abstract
Intestinal enterococci indicate the fecal contamination of bathing waters. This study defines the performance characteristics of the reference method ISO 7899-2:2000 with water samples collected from inland and coastal bathing areas in Finland. From a total of 341 bacterial isolates grown on Slanetz and Bartley medium, 63.6% were confirmed as intestinal enterococci on bile aesculin agar. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clades accounted for 93.1% of the confirmed isolates. The range of the false positive and false negative rate of the ISO 7899-2 was 0.0-18.5% and 5.6-57.1%, respectively, being affected by the presumptive colony count on the membrane. The analysis of multiple sample volumes is proposed to reach 10-100 colonies per membrane when 47 mm diameter membranes are used to prevent overestimation of low counts and underestimation of the high counts.
PubMed ID
30285953 View in PubMed
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[CHANGING OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF NON-CONTACT (ELECTROCHEMICAL) ACTIVATED DRINKING WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH INDUCTION OF GENOMIC INSTABILITY OF CULTIVATED HUMAN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273976
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016;95(3):233-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
O V Zatsepina
F I Ingel
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016;95(3):233-41
Date
2016
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drinking Water - adverse effects - analysis - chemistry
Electrochemical Techniques - methods
Environmental Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Genomic Instability - drug effects
Humans
Lymphocytes - drug effects - metabolism
Micronucleus Tests - methods
Public Health - methods - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Water Purification - methods - standards
Water Quality - standards
Abstract
In the article there are presented data which are the fragment of large multidisciplinary study of genetic safety of non-contact electrochemically activated water (NAW). The aim of this study was the analysis of the relation of impacts of genomic instability (micronucleus test with cytochalasin B) detected in human blood cells, cultured in medias prepared on the base of these NAWs, with physical and chemical properties of these NaWs. In experiments there were used catholytes and anolytes obtained by activation of osmotic, tap and dining bottled water As a result of such activation, all waters were shown to acquire the ability to induce genomic instability in cellular cultures. Notably in cell cultures on catholytes and anolytes these effects differed between themselves and have been associated with different physical and chemical properties of the NAWs.
PubMed ID
27266021 View in PubMed
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A comparative analysis of current microbial water quality risk assessment and management practices in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107104
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jan 15;468-469:544-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-15-2014
Author
Gemma Dunn
Leila Harris
Christina Cook
Natalie Prystajecky
Author Affiliation
Program on Water Governance, University of British Columbia, 439-2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address: gemma.dunn@ubc.ca.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jan 15;468-469:544-52
Date
Jan-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Drinking Water - microbiology
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Metagenomics - methods - trends
Ontario
Public Health - methods
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk Management - methods
Water Quality - standards
Abstract
Bacteria, protozoa and viruses are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may pose threats to water quality for both human and ecosystem health. Microbial risk assessment and management in the water sector is a focus of governmental regulation and scientific inquiry; however, stark gaps remain in their application and interpretation. This paper evaluates how water managers practice microbial risk assessment and management in two Canadian provinces (BC and Ontario). We assess three types of entities engaged in water management along the source-to-tap spectrum (watershed agencies, water utilities, and public health authorities). We analyze and compare the approaches used by these agencies to assess and manage microbial risk (including scope, frequency, and tools). We evaluate key similarities and differences, and situate them with respect to international best practices derived from literatures related to microbial risk assessment and management. We find considerable variability in microbial risk assessment frameworks and management tools in that approaches 1) vary between provinces; 2) vary within provinces and between similar types of agencies; 3) have limited focus on microbial risk assessment for ecosystem health and 4) diverge considerably from the literature on best practices. We find that risk assessments that are formalized, routine and applied system-wide (i.e. from source-to-tap) are limited. We identify key limitations of current testing methodologies and looking forward consider the outcomes of this research within the context of new developments in microbial water quality monitoring such as tests derived from genomics and metagenomics based research.
PubMed ID
24055670 View in PubMed
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[Comparative assessment of sanitary and epidemic importance of indicator coliform indices of drinking water quality].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290156
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016; 95(6):582-8
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
2016
Author
Yu A Rakhmanin
L V Ivanova
T Z Artemova
E K Gipp
A V Zagaynova
T N Maksimkina
A V Krasnyak
P V Zhuravlev
V V Aleshnya
O P Panasovets
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016; 95(6):582-8
Date
2016
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Bacteriological Techniques - methods
Drinking Water - analysis - microbiology - standards
Enterobacteriaceae - isolation & purification
Enterobacteriaceae Infections - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humans
Russia - epidemiology
Water Microbiology - standards
Water Quality - standards
Water Supply - methods - standards
Abstract
The used methodology of the scientific substantiation of indicators is in the establishment of the conformity of laws of vital activity of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms in the real conditions of the action of the complex of factors, including disinfecting agents. In the one water sample simultaneously there were determined both the general indicator (GICB), thermotolerant (TTCB), glucose positive (GPCB) coliform bacteria, E.coli. On the base of long-term research in the various regions of the Russian Federation, as well with bearing in mind the analysis of domestic and foreign data, comparing the water quality and the incidence of intestinal infections in population it is recommended to use the index of determination of the total number glucose positive coliform bacteria (GPCB), which brings together a much broader range of bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family in comparison with total coliform bacteria (TCB) and thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TTCB) and warrants the absence in the test volume of water as an indicator lactose positive (E.coli, TCB, TTCB) and pathogens (salmonella) and potentially pathogenic bacteria which do not ferment lactose. Proposed index of GPCB is shown to allow to assess epidemiological risks not only more accurate, but also more efficiently without increasing the cost performance of bacteriological research.
PubMed ID
29424503 View in PubMed
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Defensive spending on tap water substitutes: the value of reducing perceived health risks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126743
Source
J Water Health. 2012 Mar;10(1):56-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Diane P Dupont
Nowshin Jahan
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. diane.dupont@brocku.ca
Source
J Water Health. 2012 Mar;10(1):56-68
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Consumer Product Safety
Drinking Water
Financing, Personal - economics
Humans
Models, Economic
Questionnaires
Water Quality - standards
Abstract
We examine factors that explain consumer spending on tap water substitutes using information from a national survey undertaken with a representative set of Canadian respondents. We develop a model to predict the percentage of households that undertake such spending for the purpose of reducing perceived health risks from tap water consumption. Using results from the model we estimate the magnitude of defensive expenditures to be over half a billion dollars (2010 US$) per year for Canada, as a whole. This is equivalent to approximately $48 per household per year or about $19 per person per year. Residents of Ontario, the province in which an Escherichia coli incident took place in 2000, have the highest willingness-to-pay of approximately $60 per household per year.
PubMed ID
22361702 View in PubMed
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Developing a national framework for safe drinking water--case study from Iceland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266726
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015 Mar;218(2):196-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Maria J Gunnarsdottir
Sigurdur M Gardarsson
Jamie Bartram
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015 Mar;218(2):196-202
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Drinking Water - standards
Environmental Monitoring - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Epidemiological Monitoring
Government Regulation
Humans
Iceland
Water Quality - standards
Water Supply - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Abstract
Safe drinking water is one of the fundaments of society and experience has shown that a holistic national framework is needed for its effective provision. A national framework should include legal requirements on water protection, surveillance on drinking water quality and performance of the water supply system, and systematic preventive management. Iceland has implemented these requirements into legislation. This case study analyzes the success and challenges encountered in implementing the legislation and provide recommendations on the main shortcomings identified through the Icelandic experience. The results of the analysis show that the national framework for safe drinking water is mostly in place in Iceland. The shortcomings include the need for both improved guidance and control by the central government; and for improved surveillance of the water supply system and implementation of the water safety plan by the Local Competent Authorities. Communication to the public and between stakeholders is also insufficient. There is also a deficiency in the national framework regarding small water supply systems that needs to be addressed. Other elements are largely in place or on track. Most of the lessons learned are transferable to other European countries where the legal system around water safety is built on a common foundation from EU directives. The lessons can also provide valuable insights into how to develop a national framework elsewhere.
PubMed ID
25434689 View in PubMed
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[FEATURES OF THE CONTENT OF DRINKING WATER IN THE CITY OF MAGADAN AND POPULATION HEALTH].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273975
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016;95(3):241-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
E A Lugovaya
E M Stepanova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016;95(3):241-6
Date
2016
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Drinking Water - adverse effects - analysis - chemistry
Environmental Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Male
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Public Health - methods - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Trace Elements - analysis
Water Purification - methods - standards
Water Quality - standards
Abstract
By methods of atom-emission and mass spectrometry with inductively bonded argon plasma there was determined the content of 25 macro- and trace elements in tap cold drinking water used by the residents of the city of Magadan for food purposes and in hair samples of 30 young male Europeans aged of 17-23 years, who are the residents, of the city of Magadan. According to our data the content of 25 elements in drinking water conforms to standards, but that content of such essential elements as Co, Cr Cu, I, Mn, Na, Se, Zn is shown to be lower than referential indices. After boiling the water the concentration of trace elements is changed. The content of Cd, Cu, K, P Pb, Zn, Ni becomes lower significantly. In healthy young men aged of 17-23 years, from the number of natives Europeoids, residents of the North there was detected deficit of Co and I (86% and 62%, respectively), lower concentrations of Ca, Mg, Se, Zn (76%, 69%, 24%, 24%, respectively). The constant use by residents of the city of Magadan of ultrafresh brackish drinking water in food aims may be the one of the main reasons of the imbalance of macro- and micronutrients in the body, characterized by features of the so-called "northern" type with a marked deficiency of basic essential elements.
PubMed ID
27266022 View in PubMed
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28 records – page 1 of 3.