There is considered the history of the development of legislative requirements to the regulation of the quality of drinking water in different countries and international organizations during the period from 1912 to the present time. In terms of comparative analysis there is analyzed the current state of regulatory frameworks of the Russian Federation, WHO, EU, Finland, the UK, Singapore, Australia, Japan, China, Nigeria, the United States and Canada in the field of providing favorable conditions of population drinking water use. There has been noted the significant progress in standardization of the content of the biogenic elements and chemical pollution of drinking water in the absence of uniform requirements to the composition and properties of drinking water globally, that is bound to the need to take into account the national peculiarities of drinking water supply within the separate countries. As promising directions for improving regulation of drinking water quality there are noted: the development of new standards for prioritized water pollution, periodic review ofstandards after appearance of the new scientific data on the biological action of substances, the use of the concept of risk, the harmonization of the normative values and the assessment of the possibility of introduction into the practice the one more criterion of profitableness of population water use--the bioenergetic state of the water.
A consistent methodology for assessing the accumulating effects of natural and manmade change on riverine systems has not been developed for a whole host of reasons including a lack of data, disagreement over core elements to consider, and complexity. Accumulated state assessments of aquatic systems is an integral component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. The Yukon River is the largest free flowing river in the world and is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America, draining 855,000 km(2) in Canada and the United States. Because of its remote location, it is considered pristine but little is known about its cumulative state. This review identified 7 "hot spot" areas in the Yukon River Basin including Lake Laberge, Yukon River at Dawson City, the Charley and Yukon River confluence, Porcupine and Yukon River confluence, Yukon River at the Dalton Highway Bridge, Tolovana River near Tolovana, and Tanana River at Fairbanks. Climate change, natural stressors, and anthropogenic stresses have resulted in accumulating changes including measurable levels of contaminants in surface waters and fish tissues, fish and human disease, changes in surface hydrology, as well as shifts in biogeochemical loads. This article is the first integrated accumulated state assessment for the Yukon River basin based on a literature review. It is the first part of a 2-part series. The second article (Dubé et al. 2013a, this issue) is a quantitative accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River Basin where hot spots and hot moments are assessed outside of a "normal" range of variability.
There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR.
The Baltic Sea is one of the most eutrophied water bodies in northern Europe and more than 50% of its total anthropogenic waterborne phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) loads derive from agricultural sources. Sweden is the second largest contributor of waterborne N and the third largest contributor of waterborne P to the Baltic Sea. Horse farms now occupy almost 10% of Swedish agricultural land, but are not well investigated with regard to their environmental impact. In this study, potential P, N and carbon (C) leaching losses were measured from two representative horse paddock topsoils (0-20 cm; a clay and a loamy sand) following simulated rainfall events in the laboratory. Results showed that the leachate concentrations and net release of P, N and dissolved organic C (DOC) from paddock topsoils were highest in feeding and excretion areas and considerably higher from the loamy sand than the clay paddock topsoil. Leaching losses of dissolved reactive P (DRP) were significantly (p
To analyze the applicability of direct insertion of total suspended matter (TSM) concentration field based on turbidity derived from satellite data to numerical simulation, dispersion studies of suspended matter in Lake Säkylän Pyhäjärvi (lake area 154 km²; mean depth 5.4 m) were conducted using the 3D COHERENS simulation model. To evaluate the practicality of direct insertion, five cases with different initialization frequencies were conducted: (1) every time, when satellite data were available; (2) every 10 days; (3) 20 days; (4) 30 days; and (5) control run without repeated initialization. To determine the effectiveness of initialization frequency, three methods of comparison were used: simple spatial differences of TSM concentration without biomass in the lake surface layer; averaged spatial differences between initialization data and the forecasts; and time series of TSM concentration and observation data at 1 m depth at the deepest point of the lake. Results showed that direct insertion improves the forecast significantly, even if it is applied less often.
Studying public perception on drinking water quality is crucial for managing of water resources, generation of water quality standards, and surveillance of the drinking-water quality. However, in policy discourse, the reliability of public perception concerning drinking water quality and associated health risks is questionable. Does the public perception of water quality equate with the actual water quality? We investigated public perceptions of water quality and the perceived health risks and associated with the actual quality of public water supplies in the same communities. The study was conducted in 45 communities of Newfoundland (Canada) in 2012. First, a telephone survey of 100 households was conducted to examine public perceptions of drinking water quality of their respective public sources. Then we extracted public water quality reports of the same communities (1988-2011) from the provincial government's water resources portal. These reports contained the analysis of 2091 water samples, including levels of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), nutrients, metals, ions and physical parameters. The reports showed that colour, manganese, total dissolved solids, iron, turbidity, and DBPs were the major detected parameters in the public water. However, the majority of the respondents (>56%) were either completely satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of drinking water. Older, higher educated and high-income group respondents were more satisfied with water quality than the younger, less educated and low-income group respondents. The study showed that there was no association with public satisfaction level and actual water quality of the respective communities. Even, in the communities, supplied by the same water system, the respondents had differences in opinion. Despite the effort by the provincial government to make the water-test results available on its website for years, the study showed existing disconnectedness between public perception of drinking water quality and actual quality. We had little scope to explore the possible explanations, and hence further studies are required to verify the age, gender educational status and income differential about the satisfaction of public service like water supply.
The Water Safety Plan (WSP) methodology, which aims to enhance safety of drinking water supplies, has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004. WSPs are now used worldwide and are legally required in several countries. However, there is limited systematic evidence available demonstrating the effectiveness of WSPs on water quality and health. Iceland was one of the first countries to legislate the use of WSPs, enabling the analysis of more than a decade of data on impact of WSP. The objective was to determine the impact of WSP implementation on regulatory compliance, microbiological water quality, and incidence of clinical cases of diarrhea. Surveillance data on water quality and diarrhea were collected and analyzed. The results show that HPC (heterotrophic plate counts), representing microbiological growth in the water supply system, decreased statistically significant with fewer incidents of HPC exceeding 10 cfu per mL in samples following WSP implementation and noncompliance was also significantly reduced (p
The vertical pattern of pelagic ciliate communities was observed at eight layers in the Chukchi Sea and the northern Bering Sea of the western Arctic Ocean during the summer sea-ice reduction period (August 5 to August 24, 2016). A total of 44 ciliate species were identified, with seven species dominated the communities in the water column. Multivariate and univariate analyses demonstrated that: (1) community structures of ciliates vary significantly among eight water depths; (2) variations in the vertical distribution of ciliates were significantly correlated with changes in physicochemical variables, especially the ammonia; (3) the distributions of the three dominant species were significantly and positively related to the chlorophyll a and ammonia concentrations; and (4) species richness and abundance were significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of ammonia and chlorophyll a. These results suggest that pelagic ciliates may reflect vertical variations in the water quality status of western Arctic ecosystems.
Intestinal enterococci indicate the fecal contamination of bathing waters. This study defines the performance characteristics of the reference method ISO 7899-2:2000 with water samples collected from inland and coastal bathing areas in Finland. From a total of 341 bacterial isolates grown on Slanetz and Bartley medium, 63.6% were confirmed as intestinal enterococci on bile aesculin agar. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clades accounted for 93.1% of the confirmed isolates. The range of the false positive and false negative rate of the ISO 7899-2 was 0.0-18.5% and 5.6-57.1%, respectively, being affected by the presumptive colony count on the membrane. The analysis of multiple sample volumes is proposed to reach 10-100 colonies per membrane when 47 mm diameter membranes are used to prevent overestimation of low counts and underestimation of the high counts.
In the article there are presented data which are the fragment of large multidisciplinary study of genetic safety of non-contact electrochemically activated water (NAW). The aim of this study was the analysis of the relation of impacts of genomic instability (micronucleus test with cytochalasin B) detected in human blood cells, cultured in medias prepared on the base of these NAWs, with physical and chemical properties of these NaWs. In experiments there were used catholytes and anolytes obtained by activation of osmotic, tap and dining bottled water As a result of such activation, all waters were shown to acquire the ability to induce genomic instability in cellular cultures. Notably in cell cultures on catholytes and anolytes these effects differed between themselves and have been associated with different physical and chemical properties of the NAWs.