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17 records – page 1 of 2.

A 1-Year Quantitative Survey of Noro-, Adeno-, Human Boca-, and Hepatitis E Viruses in Raw and Secondarily Treated Sewage from Two Plants in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272273
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2015 Sep;7(3):213-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
M. Myrmel
H. Lange
E. Rimstad
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2015 Sep;7(3):213-23
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenoviridae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Environmental monitoring
Genotype
Hepatitis E virus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Human bocavirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Norovirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Norway
Phylogeny
Seasons
Sewage - virology
Water Pollution
Water Purification - instrumentation
Abstract
A study of enteric viruses in raw and treated sewage from two secondary treatment plants, which received sewage from Oslo city (plant A) and small municipalities in Hedmark county in Norway (plant B), showed high levels of noro-, adeno-, and bocavirus throughout the year. A seasonal variation was observed for adeno- and GII norovirus with higher levels during winter and bocavirus that had more positive samples during winter. The virus concentrations in raw sewage were comparable in the two plants, with medians (log10 genome copies per liter) of 6.1, 6.3, 6.0, and 4.5 for noro GI, noro GII, adeno-, and bocavirus, respectively. The level of hepatitis E virus was not determined as it was below the limit of quantification. The mean log10 virus reduction was 0.55 (plant A) and 1.44 (plant B) with the highest reduction found in the plant with longer hydraulic retention time. The adenoviruses were dominantly serotype 41, while serotype 12 appeared sporadically. Of the 102 raw and treated sewage samples that were tested, eight were positive for hepatitis E virus of which four were from treated sewage. Two of the four obtained gene sequences from hepatitis E virus originated from the rural sewage samples and showed high similarity with a genotype 3 strain of hepatitis E virus detected in local piglets. Two other hepatitis E virus sequences obtained from urban sewage samples showed high similarities with genotype 3 strains isolated from urban sewage in Spain and a human genotype 1 isolate from India. The study gives information on the levels of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage, which is valuable to risk assessment, information indicating that some infections with hepatitis E viruses in Norway have a regional origin and that human bocavirus 2 and 3 are prevalent in the Norwegian population.
PubMed ID
26003323 View in PubMed
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Affordable and efficient adsorbent for arsenic removal from rural water supply systems in Newfoundland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298550
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Apr 10; 660:158-168
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-10-2019
Author
Javid Shadbahr
Tahir Husain
Author Affiliation
EnviroRisk International, Inc., 36 Pearson Street, St. John's, NL A1A 3R1, Canada.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Apr 10; 660:158-168
Date
Apr-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Arsenic - analysis
Coal Ash - chemistry
Drinking Water - analysis
Newfoundland and Labrador
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Purification - instrumentation
Water Wells
Abstract
The fly ash from the Corner Brook Pulp and Paper (CBPP) mill was used in this study as the raw material for the preparation of a low-cost adsorbent for arsenic removal from the well water of Bell Island. The CBPP fly ash was physically activated in two different ways: (a) activation with pure CO2 (CAC) with the iodine number and methylene value of 704.53?mg/g and 292.32?mg/g, respectively; and (b) activation with a mixture of CO2 and steam (CSAC) with the iodine number and methylene value of 1119.98?mg/g and 358.95?mg/g, respectively, at the optimized temperature of 850?°C and the time of 2?h for both activations. The BET surface areas of the CAC and CSAC at the optimized conditions were 847.26?m2/g and 1146.25?m2/g, respectively. The optimized CSAC was used for impregnation with iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) with different concentrations (0.01?M to 1?M). The study shows that the adsorbent impregnated with 0.1?M FeCl3 is the most efficient adsorbent for arsenic removal. Isotherm analysis shows that the Langmuir model better describes the equilibrium behavior of the arsenic adsorption from both local well water and synthesized water compared to the other models. The maximum arsenic adsorption capacity was 35.6?µg/g of carbon for local well water and 1428.6?µg/g of carbon for synthesized water. Furthermore, the kinetic behavior of arsenic adsorption from synthesized and local well water was well depicted by the pseudo-second order kinetic model.
PubMed ID
30639713 View in PubMed
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Assessment of a Danish sludge treatment reed bed system and a stockpile area, using substance flow analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291722
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2017 Nov; 76(9-10):2291-2303
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Julie D Larsen
Steen M Nielsen
Charlotte Scheutz
Author Affiliation
Orbicon A/S, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark E-mail: smni@orbicon.dk; Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2017 Nov; 76(9-10):2291-2303
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Biodegradation, Environmental
Denmark
Metals, Heavy - analysis - metabolism
Nitrogen - analysis - metabolism
Phosphorus - analysis - metabolism
Poaceae - growth & development - metabolism
Sewage - chemistry
Water Purification - instrumentation - methods
Abstract
Sludge treatment reed bed (STRB) systems combine dewatering, stabilisation and long-term storage of sludge. The main objective of this study was to investigate how substance concentrations change in the sludge residue during treatment and to conduct substance flow analyses covering the flow of substances in an STRB system over a 12-year treatment period, followed by three months' post-treatment in a stockpile area (SPA). Samples of sludge, reject water and sludge residue of different ages were collected at two Danish STRB system facilities and analysed for content of relevant substances. Concentrations of carbon and nitrogen in the sludge residue residing in an STRB system changed as a function of treatment time, mainly due to mineralisation; only a negligible part was lost to reject water. Considering metals and phosphorus, the main share was accumulated in the sludge residue; only minor fractions were lost to mineralisation or reject water. Post-treatment in an SPA resulted in an increase in dry matter content from 24% to 32%. After treatment, the concentrations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, copper and chromium) in the sludge residue met the threshold values stated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the EU.
PubMed ID
29144287 View in PubMed
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Bacterial removal from inexpensive portable water treatment systems for travelers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195975
Source
J Travel Med. 2001 Jan-Feb;8(1):12-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
O. Schlosser
C. Robert
C. Bourderioux
M. Rey
M R de Roubin
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Services, Vivendi, Paris, France.
Source
J Travel Med. 2001 Jan-Feb;8(1):12-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria
Equipment Design
Humans
Travel
Water Microbiology
Water Purification - instrumentation - methods
Abstract
There are many personal portable water treatment systems for travelers on the market, including chemical agents, iodine resin purifiers and filters. However, information on the real efficacy of these systems in the field is often lacking. We have therefore estimated the capabilities of several inexpensive personal portable water treatment systems for travelers to remove bacteria in various situations of water quality, using stressed indigenous strains of bacteria.
Four chemical agents (Drinkwell chlorine, Hydroclonazone, Aquatabs, 2% iodine in ethanol), two iodine resin purifiers (the straw PentaPure Outdoor M1-E, the PentaPure Traveler purifying and filtration system) and four filters (the flexible bottle Pres2Pure, the hand-pump filters Mini Ceramic, First Need Deluxe and WalkAbout) were evaluated in triplicate using both turbid and clear water at 25 degrees C. Bacteria were counted by conventional culturing techniques, colorimetric and fluorescent assays of coliforms and Escherichia coli enzyme activities (Colilert)/Quantitray method), and viable but not culturable bacteria were assessed quantitatively by 5-cyano-2,3-dilotyl-tetrazolium staining.
The best systems were the three hand-pump filters, Mini Ceramic, First Need Deluxe, and WalkAbout. All had a submicron filtration element that completely removed 3 log (99.9%) or more of viable bacteria, and no coliforms or E. coli were detected in the effluent. The PentaPure Traveler removed more than 99.3% of the viable bacteria. The only chemical agents that gave a bacterial inactivation of over 2 log in clear water were the Drinkwell chlorine, the Aquatabs, and the 2% iodine in ethanol. The three other devices, Hydroclonazone, Outdoor M1-E, and Pres2Pure, performed poorly, as coliforms and E. coli were detected in the treated water by the Colilert method. The chemical agents and the iodine resin straw performed poorly on raw river water; coliforms and E. coli were detected in the treated water.
These data demonstrate the differences between the systems tested. The effectiveness of other devices on the market should also be tested, so as to help travelers and hikers select the most appropriate portable water treatment system.
PubMed ID
11182604 View in PubMed
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Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273841
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2016;73(4):798-806
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
E. Lindblom
M. Arnell
X. Flores-Alsina
F. Stenström
D J I Gustavsson
J. Yang
U. Jeppsson
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2016;73(4):798-806
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denitrification
Models, Theoretical
Nitrification
Nitrous Oxide - chemistry
Sewage - chemistry
Sweden
Water Purification - instrumentation
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O production by both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification. In addition, mass transfer equations are implemented to characterize the dynamics of N2O in the water and the gas phases. The biochemical model is simulated and validated for two hydraulic patterns: (1) a sequencing batch reactor; and (2) a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Results show that the calibrated model is partly capable of reproducing the behaviour of N2O as well as the nitritation/nitrification/denitrification dynamics. However, the results emphasize that additional work is required before N2O emissions from sludge liquor treatment plants can be generally predicted with high certainty by simulations. Continued efforts should focus on determining the switching conditions for different N2O formation pathways and, if full-scale data are used, more detailed modelling of the measurement devices might improve the conclusions that can be drawn.
PubMed ID
26901722 View in PubMed
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The effect of amalgam separators on mercury loading to wastewater treatment plants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178061
Source
J Calif Dent Assoc. 2004 Jul;32(7):593-600
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Mark E Stone
Author Affiliation
Mercury Management Program, Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, Great Lakes, Ill 60088, USA.
Source
J Calif Dent Assoc. 2004 Jul;32(7):593-600
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Denmark
Dental Amalgam - analysis
Dental Waste - analysis - prevention & control
Equipment Design
Hazardous Substances - analysis
Hazardous Waste - analysis - prevention & control
Humans
Medical Waste Disposal - instrumentation
Mercury - analysis
Practice Management, Dental
Sewage - analysis
United States
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Pollution, Chemical - prevention & control
Water Purification - instrumentation
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) release from dental offices has become an acute issue for the dental profession and has resulted in efforts by regulators to mandate both the use of Best Management Practices (BMPs) as well as the installation of amalgam separators. Concern has been expressed by some regarding the efficacy of amalgam separators in reducing the Hg loads to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Data from several Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) serving areas with installed bases of separators suggest these devices can substantially reduce Hg burdens to WWTPs. The data consists of Hg levels in sewer sludge (biosolids) and in some cases includes Hg concentrations in WWTP influent and effluent. Data comes from various geographical locations, and suggest separators can have a positive effect in reducing the amount of Hg reaching WWTPs.
PubMed ID
15468541 View in PubMed
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Electrically enhanced MBR system for total nutrient removal in remote northern applications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127624
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2012;65(4):737-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
V. Wei
M. Elektorowicz
J A Oleszkiewicz
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Manitoba, 15 Gillson St., Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 5V6, Canada. wei@cc.umanitoba.ca
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2012;65(4):737-42
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Electrochemistry - instrumentation - methods
Food
Humans
Waste Disposal, Fluid - instrumentation - methods
Water Purification - instrumentation - methods
Abstract
Thousands of sparsely populated communities scatter in the remote areas of northern Canada. It is economically preferable to adopt the decentralized systems to treat the domestic wastewater because of the vast human inhabitant distribution and cold climatic conditions. Electro-technologies such as electrofiltration, elctrofloatation, electrocoagulation and electrokinetic separation have been applied in water and conventional wastewater treatment for decades due to the minimum requirements of chemicals as well as ease of operation. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is gaining popularity in recent years as an alternative water/wastewater treatment technology. However, few studies have been conducted to hyphenate these two technologies. The purpose of this work is to design a novel electrically enhanced membrane bioreactor (EMBR) as an alternative decentralized wastewater treatment system with improved nutrient removal and reduced membrane fouling. Two identical submerged membranes (GE ZW-1 hollow fiber module) were used for the experiment, with one as a control. The EMBR and control MBR were operated for 4 months at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) with synthetic feed and 2 months at 10 °C with real sewage. The following results were observed: (1) the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increased significantly more slowly in the EMBR and the interval between the cleaning cycles of the EMBR increased at least twice; (2) the dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD) or total organic carbon (TOC) in the EMBR biomass was reduced from 30 to 51%, correspondingly, concentrations of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the major suspicious membrane foulants, decreased by 26-46% in the EMBR; (3) both control and EMBR removed >99% of ammonium-N and >95% of dissolved COD, in addition, ortho-P removal in the EMBR was >90%, compared with 47-61% of ortho-P removal in the MBR; and (4) the advantage of the EMBR over the conventional MBR in terms of membrane fouling retardation and phosphorus removal was further demonstrated at an operating temperature of 10 °C when fed with real sewage. The EMBR system has the potential for highly automated control and minimal maintenance, which is particularly suitable for remote northern applications.
PubMed ID
22277234 View in PubMed
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[Investigation of the antiparasitic activity of paracels series apparatuses].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136776
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Sep-Oct;(5):90-1
Publication Type
Article
Author
A I Chernyshenko
G I Novosil'tsev
V M Ivanov
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Sep-Oct;(5):90-1
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Equipment Design
Humans
Parasites - isolation & purification
Russia
Sewage - parasitology
Water - parasitology
Water Microbiology
Water Purification - instrumentation
Abstract
The paper provides a preliminary positive assessment of the results of experimental studies of the inactivating effect of a bioresonance technology against Lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts placed in the aquatic environment in vitro.
PubMed ID
21344703 View in PubMed
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Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276614
Source
Water Res. 2016 Jan 1;88:538-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2016
Author
Linda L Fang
Borja Valverde-Pérez
Anders Damgaard
Benedek Gy Plósz
Martin Rygaard
Source
Water Res. 2016 Jan 1;88:538-49
Date
Jan-1-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Conservation of Natural Resources
Decision Support Techniques
Denmark
Waste Disposal, Fluid - instrumentation - methods
Waste Water - analysis
Water Purification - instrumentation - methods
Abstract
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the field of wastewater treatment where the focus has been to identify environmental trade-offs of current technologies. In a novel approach, we use LCA to support early stage research and development of a biochemical system for wastewater resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus. However, the resource recovery may come at the cost of unintended environmental impacts. One promising recovery system, referred to as TRENS, consists of an enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) connected to a photobioreactor. Based on a simulation of a full-scale nutrient and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts from the chosen end use of wastewater recovery products. The toxicity impacts are from both heavy metals release associated with land application of recovered nutrients and production of AlCl3, which is required for advanced wastewater treatment prior to aquifer recharge. Perturbation analysis of the LCA pinpointed nutrient substitution and heavy metals content of algae biofertilizer as critical areas for further research if the performance of nutrient recovery systems such as TRENS is to be better characterized. Our study provides valuable feedback to the TRENS developers and identifies the importance of system expansion to include impacts outside the immediate nutrient recovery system itself. The study also show for the first time the successful evaluation of urban-to-agricultural water systems in EASETECH.
PubMed ID
26540509 View in PubMed
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[Methodological aspects of hygienic evaluation of small-sized plants safety for biological purification of household waste waters].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189677
Source
Gig Sanit. 2002 Mar-Apr;(2):23-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Z I Zholdakova
N A Zaitsev
O O Sinitsina
A E Nedachin
Source
Gig Sanit. 2002 Mar-Apr;(2):23-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Fresh Water
Humans
Russia
Water Pollution
Water Purification - instrumentation - standards
Abstract
The paper deals with the studies of the efficiency of four small-sized plants for biological purification of household waste waters (WW), which were conducted by using a complex of sanitary criteria, such as organoleptic, sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-microbiological parameters of water quality of water objects, such as purified WW reservoirs, and presents a comparative assessment of their efficiency. The used methodological scheme is shown to provide an objective evaluation of the sanitary efficiency of the equipment under test with an compulsory set of regulated and additional integral parameters that should be regarded in combination. It is recommended that preference should be given to WW purification technologies that are effective in removing the environmentally hazardous chemical substances used in household chemistry.
PubMed ID
12077975 View in PubMed
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17 records – page 1 of 2.