Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazards in drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have been reported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption data from a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study (75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed. A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with mu = - 0.299 and sigma = 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The average daily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffee and tea, was 0.86 +/- 0.48 l and 0.94 +/- 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap water than did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tap water intake was highest in the oldest age group, (> or =70 years). The consumption of bottled water was very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries.
The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories.
The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000-2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia.
This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000-2011).
Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis.
Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000-2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed.
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
Conditions favouring the sharp increase of risk to be infected with cercariasis (caused by trematode cercariae Trichobilharzia ocellata Brumpt, 1931, Schistosomatidae) were examined in Moscow region (Russian Federation). Main factors of worsening the cercariasis situation are as follows. a) The increase of environment pollution by everyday wastages and the overgrowing with macrophytes in internal water basins of Moscow, that makes favourable conditions for the development of molluscs, which are intermediate hosts (mainly Lymnaea ovata and L. auricularia). b) The sharp increase of number of ducks (mainly mallard Anas platyrhyncos), which are final hosts, that is a result of bird escaping from farms (approximately in 60-70-th) and of high adaptation of these birds to city water basins. The detailed estimation of the cercariasis situation in 89 water basins of different types in Moscow and recreation zone was carried out. Examples of charting the zones with different risk degree of cercariasis infection are given. It is stated that at current time the cercariasis became a significant and widely distributed medical problem, which is most important in cities (including such large one as Moscow). Prophylaxis recommendations are proposed.