Accumulation of artificial and natural radionuclides in the chains of food webs leading to non-predatory and piscivorous fish of the Yenisei River was investigated during one year before and three years after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (2009-2012). The activity of artificial radionuclides in the samples of biota ofthe Yenisei River (aquatic moss, gammarids, dace, grayling, pike) was estimated. The concentration of radionuclides with induced activity (51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 141, 144Ce, 152, 154Eu, 239Np) decreased in the biomass of biota after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant; the concentration of 137Cs did not. Analysis of the accumulation factors (C(F)) allows us to expect the effective accumulation of 137Cs in the terminal level of the food web of the Yenisei River--pike (C(F) = 2.0-9.4), i.e. biomagnifications of radiocesium. Accumulation of artificial, radionuclides in non-predatory fish from gammarids was not effective (C(F)
The Techa River was contaminated as a result of radioactive releases by the Mayak plutonium production facility in 1949-1956. The residents of riverside communities were exposed to internal irradiation from radionuclides ingested mainly with river water, and also to external gamma irradiation resulting from shoreline and flood-plain contamination. The most important role in population exposure was played by (89,90)Sr and 137Cs. The persons born after the onset of the contamination have been identified as the 'Techa River Offspring Cohort' (TROC). The TROC has the potential to provide direct data on health effects in progeny that resulted from exposure of a general population to chronic radiation. This report describes the results of the calculation of fetal doses due to intakes of radionuclides by their mothers. Particular attention has been given to fetal dose from 90Sr because this nuclide is the most significant in terms of population dose for the Techa River. The comparison of the fetal bone marrow doses evaluated using different approaches proposed in the literature has shown a large dispersal in dose values. The main cause of this is the difference in model assumptions simplifying some developmental aspects of fetal haematopoiesis and bone formation. This paper presents an analysis of these basic assumptions that could be useful for further improvements in fetal dosimetry.
In a preliminary study, in vivo skull measurements and in vitro urine measurements of 210Pb and nulU have been performed to find out the individual, chronic exposure to waterborne natural radionuclides of a small group of Finnish people. For their domestic water, the studied individuals use water from drilled wells containing elevated concentrations of natural uranium and its daughter nuclides ((234,235,238)U, 222Rn, (226,228)Ra, 210Po, 210Pb). Enhanced 210Pb and 235U activities were observed in several people. A positive correlation is observed between the U concentration in urine (microg d(-1)) and the number of counts (cpm) in the gamma ray energy peaks originating from the decay of 235U and 234Th respectively. Calibration of the detector set-up and the determination of background sources are in progress.
Massive releases of fission products from the plutonium production facility 'Mayak' resulted in the years 1949-1956 in the contamination of the river Techa and its flood lands. This led to the exposure of the population in many riverside villages due to external gamma-rays and due to the incorporation of radionuclides, primarily Sr-90. The exposure situation is described and the reconstruction of doses due to external and due to internal radioactivity is explained. The internal dosimetry is based on large scale measurements of Sr-90 beta-rays on the surface of teeth that were begun in 1960, and on whole-body measurements of Sr-90 that were begun in 1974. The details of the analyses are presented in Part 2 of the present report. Average doses due to the external and the internal exposure are given for the residents of the different villages along the river Techa. In the total population of about 28,000 persons that were assessed, the medium dose to the red bone marrow was about 0.25 Gy and the mean dose about 0.4 Gy. In about 5% of the individuals the dose to the red bone marrow was estimated to be in excess of 1 Gy.
Uptake of 226Ra, 232Th, 230Th, and 228Th from water, sediment, and diet sources to bone and muscle of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) was studied in sixteen lakes in the uranium-mining district of Ontario, Canada. Fish tissues did not increase linearly with environmental concentrations. The best relationship appears to be a power function. This has implications for the accuracy of radiological dose and risk estimates for uranium mining impacts, which are often based on a linear model.
Measurements of 90Sr in human bone of inhabitants of the Techa river region were started in 1951, and since 1974 the Techa river population has been studied with a whole-body counter. One of the dosimetric tasks that could be decided using data on 90Sr measurements is direct evaluation of strontium transfer to the fetus from the maternal skeleton. Six cases were selected for which 90Sr measurements were available both for stillborn infants and their mothers. The ratio of 90Sr concentrations in fetal bone to maternal bone for the year of pregnancy has been evaluated. Two clusters of values were found and the difference between clusters could be explained by age-dependent features of maternal bone formation and remodelling. When the mother's 90Sr intake occurred in the period of intensive compact bone growth, the transfer coefficient was very low (0.012-0.032). If 90Sr ingestion occurred during the woman's reproductive age, the transfer to fetus was equal to 0.21-0.26.
The present investigation was undertaken by the Department of Health, Canada, to determine the most appropriate value to use for uranium gastrointestinal absorption (f1) in setting the guideline for drinking water. Fifty participants, free from medical problems, were recruited from two communities: a rural area where drinking water, supplied from drilled wells, contained elevated levels of uranium and an urban area where the water supplied by the municipal water system contained