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620 records – page 1 of 62.

Accumulated state of the Yukon River watershed: part I critical review of literature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121234
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Monique G Dubé
Breda Muldoon
Julie Wilson
Karonhiakta'tie Bryan Maracle
Author Affiliation
Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Alberta, Canada. Dub.mon@hotmail.com
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animal Migration
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Climate change
Environment
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - parasitology
Fishes - physiology
Fresh Water - analysis - microbiology - parasitology
Humans
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Water Movements
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Water Quality
Yukon Territory - epidemiology
Abstract
A consistent methodology for assessing the accumulating effects of natural and manmade change on riverine systems has not been developed for a whole host of reasons including a lack of data, disagreement over core elements to consider, and complexity. Accumulated state assessments of aquatic systems is an integral component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. The Yukon River is the largest free flowing river in the world and is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America, draining 855,000 km(2) in Canada and the United States. Because of its remote location, it is considered pristine but little is known about its cumulative state. This review identified 7 "hot spot" areas in the Yukon River Basin including Lake Laberge, Yukon River at Dawson City, the Charley and Yukon River confluence, Porcupine and Yukon River confluence, Yukon River at the Dalton Highway Bridge, Tolovana River near Tolovana, and Tanana River at Fairbanks. Climate change, natural stressors, and anthropogenic stresses have resulted in accumulating changes including measurable levels of contaminants in surface waters and fish tissues, fish and human disease, changes in surface hydrology, as well as shifts in biogeochemical loads. This article is the first integrated accumulated state assessment for the Yukon River basin based on a literature review. It is the first part of a 2-part series. The second article (Dubé et al. 2013a, this issue) is a quantitative accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River Basin where hot spots and hot moments are assessed outside of a "normal" range of variability.
PubMed ID
22927161 View in PubMed
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Accumulation and trophic transfer of organotins in a marine food web from the Danish coastal waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172406
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):72-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2005
Author
Jakob Strand
Jens A Jacobsen
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. jak@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):72-85
Date
Nov-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Birds
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Fishes
Food chain
Fucus
Humans
Invertebrates
Male
Organotin Compounds - analysis
Phoca
Phocoena
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zosteraceae
Abstract
The presence of organotin compounds, e.g., tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) including the di- and monosubstituted breakdown products, was studied in a representative marine food web in order to assess the accumulation potential at different trophic levels in Danish coastal waters. This included samples of two species of seaweed, four species of invertebrates, four species of fish, five species of birds and two species of mammals. All organisms were sampled away from harbour areas and the organotin concentrations found in this study can therefore be considered to reflect a general level in organisms living in Danish coastal waters. All the samples analysed contained organotin compounds. The highest hepatic concentrations of butyltins were found in flounder (60-259 ng g-1 wet weight [ww], as Sn), eider duck (12-202 ng g-1 ww) and harbour porpoise (134-2283 ng g-1 ww). The lowest concentrations were found in seaweed and a plant-feeding bird. TPhT or its degradation products were also found in most of the samples with the highest concentrations in flounder (9.8-74 ng g-1 ww), cod (23-28 ng g-1 ww) and great black-backed gull (19-24 ng g-1 ww). This indicates an input of TPhT in the region, probably from the use as antifouling agent. A high variance in accumulation potential was found between the species, even between species at the same trophic level, which probably reflects the species-specific differences in exposure routes and the capabilities to metabolise and eliminate the organotin compounds. This study gives evidence of the importance of biomagnification of butyltin in harbour porpoises and, to a lesser extent, in fish and birds.
PubMed ID
16227074 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of lead (Pb) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a lake downstream a former shooting range.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279581
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017 Jan;135:327-336
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Espen Mariussen
Lene Sørlie Heier
Hans Christian Teien
Marit Nandrup Pettersen
Tor Fredrik Holth
Brit Salbu
Bjørn Olav Rosseland
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017 Jan;135:327-336
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antimony - analysis
Bone and Bones - chemistry
Copper - analysis
Firearms
Geologic Sediments - analysis
Gills - chemistry
Kidney - chemistry
Lakes
Lead - analysis
Norway
Sports
Trout - blood - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zinc - analysis
Zygote - chemistry - drug effects
Abstract
An environmental survey was performed in Lake Kyrtj?nn, a small lake within an abandoned shooting range in the south of Norway. In Lake Kyrtj?nn the total water concentrations of Pb (14?g/L), Cu (6.1?g/L) and Sb (1.3?g/L) were elevated compared to the nearby reference Lake Stitj?nn, where the total concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb were 0.76, 1.8 and 0.12?g/L, respectively. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Kyrtj?nn had very high levels of Pb in bone (104mg/kg w.w.), kidney (161mg/kg w.w.) and the gills (137mg/kg d.w), and a strong inhibition of the ALA-D enzyme activity were observed in the blood (24% of control). Dry fertilized brown trout eggs were placed in the small outlet streams from Lake Kyrtj?nn and the reference lake for 6 months, and the concentrations of Pb and Cu in eggs from the Lake Kyrtj?nn stream were significantly higher than in eggs from the reference. More than 90% of Pb accumulated in the egg shell, whereas more than 80% of the Cu and Zn accumulated in the egg interior. Pb in the lake sediments was elevated in the upper 2-5cm layer (410-2700mg/kg d.w), and was predominantly associated with redox sensitive fractions (e.g., organic materials, hydroxides) indicating low potential mobility and bioavailability of the deposited Pb. Only minor amounts of Cu and Sb were deposited in the sediments. The present work showed that the adult brown trout, as well as fertilized eggs and alevins, may be subjected to increased stress due to chronic exposure to Pb, whereas exposure to Cu, Zn and Sb were of less importance.
PubMed ID
27770648 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of organotin compounds and mercury in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Danish waters and West Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70531
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2005
Author
Jakob Strand
Martin M Larsen
Christina Lockyer
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. jak@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Date
Nov-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Female
Greenland
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
Organotin Compounds - analysis - metabolism
Phocoena - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Zinc - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
The concentrations of butyltin (summation operatorBT=TBT+DBT+MBT) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the liver of 35 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), which were found dead along the coastlines or caught as by-catch in the Danish North Sea and the Inner Danish waters. In addition, three harbour porpoises hunted in West Greenland were analysed. High levels of butyltin and mercury, within the range of 68-4605 mg BT/kg ww and 0.22-92 mg Hg/kg ww, were found in the liver of the Danish harbour porpoises and both substances tend to accumulate with age. The levels in the harbour porpoise from West Greenland were 2.0-18 mg BT/kg ww and 6.3-6.9 mg Hg/kg ww, respectively. The concentrations of butyltin and mercury were both found to be higher in stranded than in by-caught harbour porpoises but only the butyltin concentration was significantly higher in stranded porpoises in the age group 1-5 years. These substances are suspected of inducing adverse effects on immune and endocrine systems in mammals and they may thereby pose a threat to the animals. This study suggests that organotin compounds are also important, when assessing the risks of contaminants on the health and viability of harbour porpoises in Danish waters.
PubMed ID
16227073 View in PubMed
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Acidic deposition and human exposure to toxic metals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234401
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1987 Dec;67(2-3):101-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1987
Author
B G Svensson
A. Björnham
A. Schütz
U. Lettevall
A. Nilsson
S. Skerfving
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1987 Dec;67(2-3):101-15
Date
Dec-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cadmium - blood
Environmental Exposure
Health status
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Lead - blood
Life Style
Mercury - blood
Metals - analysis - blood
Questionnaires
Selenium - blood
Sweden
Water Pollutants - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
Acid precipitation affects the solubility of several metals in aquatic systems and in soil. Cadmium levels in tap water samples from geological areas having low resistance to acidic pollution were significantly higher than those in samples from a neighbouring reference area where there was a different geological structure. The median cadmium levels and pH values were 0.14 microgram l-1 and 5.6 respectively, for the acidic areas compared with 0.07 microgram l-1 and 6.4 respectively for the reference area. Further, there was a significant inverse relationship between both cadmium and lead contents and the pH values of the samples. The mobility of the metals was thus dependent on the acidity. The blood lead levels in 195 subjects from the acidic areas were lower than those in 91 subjects from the reference area (medians 60 vs. 70 micrograms l-1); no significant differences were found in blood cadmium or blood mercury levels. Subjects in the acidic areas had lower plasma selenium levels than those from the reference area (medians 85 vs. 90 micrograms l-1); the difference was mainly attributed to subjects with private wells. The data may indicate a negative effect of the acidic pollution on selenium intake via water and/or foods. There was also a positive relationship between intake of fish on the one hand and blood mercury and plasma selenium on the other, which is in accordance with the role of fish as a source of these metals.
PubMed ID
3438737 View in PubMed
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Adhesion of mechanically and chemically dispersed crude oil droplets to eggs of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299352
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Nov 01; 640-641:138-143
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-01-2018
Author
Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Lisbet Sørensen
Patricia Almeira Carvalho
Sonnich Meier
Andy M Booth
Dag Altin
Julia Farkas
Trond Nordtug
Author Affiliation
SINTEF Ocean AS, Environment and New Resources, Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: bjorn.h.hansen@sintef.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Nov 01; 640-641:138-143
Date
Nov-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Gadiformes - physiology
Gadus morhua - physiology
Ovum - chemistry
Petroleum - analysis
Petroleum Pollution
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Crude oil accidentally spilled into the marine environment undergoes natural weathering processes that result in oil components being dissolved into the water column or present in particulate form as dispersed oil droplets. Oil components dissolved in seawater are typically considered as more bioavailable to pelagic marine organisms and the main driver of crude oil toxicity, however, recent studies indicate that oil droplets may also contribute. The adhesion of crude oil droplets onto the eggs of pelagic fish species may cause enhanced transfer of oil components via the egg surface causing toxicity during the sensitive embryonic developmental stage. In the current study, we utilized an oil droplet dispersion generator to generate defined oil droplets sizes/concentrations and exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) to investigate if the potential for dispersed oil droplets to adhere onto the surface of eggs was species-dependent. The influence of a commercial chemical dispersant on the adhesion process was also studied. A key finding was that the adhesion of oil droplets was significantly higher for haddock than cod, highlighting key differences and exposure risks between the two species. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the differences in oil droplet adhesion may be driven by the surface morphology of the eggs. Another important finding was that the adhesion capacity of oil droplets to fish eggs is significantly reduced (cod 37.3%, haddock 41.7%) in the presence of the chemical dispersant.
PubMed ID
29859431 View in PubMed
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Affordable and efficient adsorbent for arsenic removal from rural water supply systems in Newfoundland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298550
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Apr 10; 660:158-168
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-10-2019
Author
Javid Shadbahr
Tahir Husain
Author Affiliation
EnviroRisk International, Inc., 36 Pearson Street, St. John's, NL A1A 3R1, Canada.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Apr 10; 660:158-168
Date
Apr-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Arsenic - analysis
Coal Ash - chemistry
Drinking Water - analysis
Newfoundland and Labrador
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Purification - instrumentation
Water Wells
Abstract
The fly ash from the Corner Brook Pulp and Paper (CBPP) mill was used in this study as the raw material for the preparation of a low-cost adsorbent for arsenic removal from the well water of Bell Island. The CBPP fly ash was physically activated in two different ways: (a) activation with pure CO2 (CAC) with the iodine number and methylene value of 704.53?mg/g and 292.32?mg/g, respectively; and (b) activation with a mixture of CO2 and steam (CSAC) with the iodine number and methylene value of 1119.98?mg/g and 358.95?mg/g, respectively, at the optimized temperature of 850?°C and the time of 2?h for both activations. The BET surface areas of the CAC and CSAC at the optimized conditions were 847.26?m2/g and 1146.25?m2/g, respectively. The optimized CSAC was used for impregnation with iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) with different concentrations (0.01?M to 1?M). The study shows that the adsorbent impregnated with 0.1?M FeCl3 is the most efficient adsorbent for arsenic removal. Isotherm analysis shows that the Langmuir model better describes the equilibrium behavior of the arsenic adsorption from both local well water and synthesized water compared to the other models. The maximum arsenic adsorption capacity was 35.6?µg/g of carbon for local well water and 1428.6?µg/g of carbon for synthesized water. Furthermore, the kinetic behavior of arsenic adsorption from synthesized and local well water was well depicted by the pseudo-second order kinetic model.
PubMed ID
30639713 View in PubMed
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[A gas-chromatographic method of analysis of monochloroacetic acid and its sodium salt in the air, skin washings, protective clothing extracts and urine].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature227341
Source
Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1991;(12):39-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
E I Fomina
Source
Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1991;(12):39-41
Date
1991
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetates - analysis - urine
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Chemical Industry
Chromatography, Gas - methods
Hand Disinfection
Humans
Occupational Medicine - methods
Protective Clothing
Russia
Skin
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The author sets forth a gas chromatographic technique for the detection of monochloracetic acid (MCAA) and its sodium salts in the air, in skin washings, overalls extracts, and urine. The substances were identified as propyl ether. The analysis was performed on a chromatograph supplied with a plasma-ionizing detector on a 2 m-long glass column, with the chromatrone N-AW-DMCS. The detection capacity in the sample was 0.005 microgram/microliter, in the air for MCAA - 0.5 mg/m3, for MCAA sodium salt - 0.25 mg/m3. Standard deviation did not exceed 0.16. The technique was tested in industrial conditions.
PubMed ID
1840108 View in PubMed
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The agricultural use of municipal sewage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240307
Source
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1984 Aug;62(8):1049-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1984
Author
D L Hamilton
R P Brockman
J E Knipfel
Source
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1984 Aug;62(8):1049-55
Date
Aug-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animals
Canada
Cattle
Cereals - analysis
Fertilizers - toxicity
Humans
Metals - analysis
Poaceae
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Sewage
Sheep
Soil - analysis
Swine
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The reuse of municipal sewage for agricultural purposes is becoming more prevalent. The literature concerning the impact of this practice is reviewed. It is readily apparent that agricultural reuse of municipal sewage is preferable to other common methods of disposal both from the point of view of ecological influence and economical waste utilization. There is a need to establish guidelines for the agricultural use of municipal sewage which will serve the variable conditions found in Canada and meet the public health concerns associated with an extensive agricultural use.
PubMed ID
6091855 View in PubMed
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Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern Baltic Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260092
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 3;48(11):6124-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-3-2014
Author
Terry F Bidleman
Kathleen Agosta
Agneta Andersson
Peter Haglund
Olle Nygren
Matyas Ripszam
Mats Tysklind
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 3;48(11):6124-32
Date
Jun-3-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Movements
Air Pollutants - analysis - chemistry
Anisoles - analysis - chemistry
Bromine - analysis - chemistry
Environmental monitoring
Oceans and Seas
Salinity
Seawater - analysis - chemistry
Sweden
Volatilization
Water Movements
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA)>2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA)»2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA>2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km2) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes.
PubMed ID
24811233 View in PubMed
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620 records – page 1 of 62.