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1266 records – page 1 of 127.

Accumulated state of the Yukon River watershed: part I critical review of literature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121234
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Monique G Dubé
Breda Muldoon
Julie Wilson
Karonhiakta'tie Bryan Maracle
Author Affiliation
Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Alberta, Canada. Dub.mon@hotmail.com
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animal Migration
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Climate change
Environment
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - parasitology
Fishes - physiology
Fresh Water - analysis - microbiology - parasitology
Humans
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Water Movements
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Water Quality
Yukon Territory - epidemiology
Abstract
A consistent methodology for assessing the accumulating effects of natural and manmade change on riverine systems has not been developed for a whole host of reasons including a lack of data, disagreement over core elements to consider, and complexity. Accumulated state assessments of aquatic systems is an integral component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. The Yukon River is the largest free flowing river in the world and is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America, draining 855,000 km(2) in Canada and the United States. Because of its remote location, it is considered pristine but little is known about its cumulative state. This review identified 7 "hot spot" areas in the Yukon River Basin including Lake Laberge, Yukon River at Dawson City, the Charley and Yukon River confluence, Porcupine and Yukon River confluence, Yukon River at the Dalton Highway Bridge, Tolovana River near Tolovana, and Tanana River at Fairbanks. Climate change, natural stressors, and anthropogenic stresses have resulted in accumulating changes including measurable levels of contaminants in surface waters and fish tissues, fish and human disease, changes in surface hydrology, as well as shifts in biogeochemical loads. This article is the first integrated accumulated state assessment for the Yukon River basin based on a literature review. It is the first part of a 2-part series. The second article (Dubé et al. 2013a, this issue) is a quantitative accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River Basin where hot spots and hot moments are assessed outside of a "normal" range of variability.
PubMed ID
22927161 View in PubMed
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Accumulation and trophic transfer of organotins in a marine food web from the Danish coastal waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172406
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):72-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2005
Author
Jakob Strand
Jens A Jacobsen
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. jak@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):72-85
Date
Nov-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Birds
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Fishes
Food chain
Fucus
Humans
Invertebrates
Male
Organotin Compounds - analysis
Phoca
Phocoena
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zosteraceae
Abstract
The presence of organotin compounds, e.g., tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) including the di- and monosubstituted breakdown products, was studied in a representative marine food web in order to assess the accumulation potential at different trophic levels in Danish coastal waters. This included samples of two species of seaweed, four species of invertebrates, four species of fish, five species of birds and two species of mammals. All organisms were sampled away from harbour areas and the organotin concentrations found in this study can therefore be considered to reflect a general level in organisms living in Danish coastal waters. All the samples analysed contained organotin compounds. The highest hepatic concentrations of butyltins were found in flounder (60-259 ng g-1 wet weight [ww], as Sn), eider duck (12-202 ng g-1 ww) and harbour porpoise (134-2283 ng g-1 ww). The lowest concentrations were found in seaweed and a plant-feeding bird. TPhT or its degradation products were also found in most of the samples with the highest concentrations in flounder (9.8-74 ng g-1 ww), cod (23-28 ng g-1 ww) and great black-backed gull (19-24 ng g-1 ww). This indicates an input of TPhT in the region, probably from the use as antifouling agent. A high variance in accumulation potential was found between the species, even between species at the same trophic level, which probably reflects the species-specific differences in exposure routes and the capabilities to metabolise and eliminate the organotin compounds. This study gives evidence of the importance of biomagnification of butyltin in harbour porpoises and, to a lesser extent, in fish and birds.
PubMed ID
16227074 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of lead (Pb) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a lake downstream a former shooting range.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279581
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017 Jan;135:327-336
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Espen Mariussen
Lene Sørlie Heier
Hans Christian Teien
Marit Nandrup Pettersen
Tor Fredrik Holth
Brit Salbu
Bjørn Olav Rosseland
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017 Jan;135:327-336
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antimony - analysis
Bone and Bones - chemistry
Copper - analysis
Firearms
Geologic Sediments - analysis
Gills - chemistry
Kidney - chemistry
Lakes
Lead - analysis
Norway
Sports
Trout - blood - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zinc - analysis
Zygote - chemistry - drug effects
Abstract
An environmental survey was performed in Lake Kyrtj?nn, a small lake within an abandoned shooting range in the south of Norway. In Lake Kyrtj?nn the total water concentrations of Pb (14?g/L), Cu (6.1?g/L) and Sb (1.3?g/L) were elevated compared to the nearby reference Lake Stitj?nn, where the total concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb were 0.76, 1.8 and 0.12?g/L, respectively. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Kyrtj?nn had very high levels of Pb in bone (104mg/kg w.w.), kidney (161mg/kg w.w.) and the gills (137mg/kg d.w), and a strong inhibition of the ALA-D enzyme activity were observed in the blood (24% of control). Dry fertilized brown trout eggs were placed in the small outlet streams from Lake Kyrtj?nn and the reference lake for 6 months, and the concentrations of Pb and Cu in eggs from the Lake Kyrtj?nn stream were significantly higher than in eggs from the reference. More than 90% of Pb accumulated in the egg shell, whereas more than 80% of the Cu and Zn accumulated in the egg interior. Pb in the lake sediments was elevated in the upper 2-5cm layer (410-2700mg/kg d.w), and was predominantly associated with redox sensitive fractions (e.g., organic materials, hydroxides) indicating low potential mobility and bioavailability of the deposited Pb. Only minor amounts of Cu and Sb were deposited in the sediments. The present work showed that the adult brown trout, as well as fertilized eggs and alevins, may be subjected to increased stress due to chronic exposure to Pb, whereas exposure to Cu, Zn and Sb were of less importance.
PubMed ID
27770648 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of organotin compounds and mercury in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Danish waters and West Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70531
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2005
Author
Jakob Strand
Martin M Larsen
Christina Lockyer
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. jak@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Date
Nov-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Female
Greenland
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
Organotin Compounds - analysis - metabolism
Phocoena - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Zinc - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
The concentrations of butyltin (summation operatorBT=TBT+DBT+MBT) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the liver of 35 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), which were found dead along the coastlines or caught as by-catch in the Danish North Sea and the Inner Danish waters. In addition, three harbour porpoises hunted in West Greenland were analysed. High levels of butyltin and mercury, within the range of 68-4605 mg BT/kg ww and 0.22-92 mg Hg/kg ww, were found in the liver of the Danish harbour porpoises and both substances tend to accumulate with age. The levels in the harbour porpoise from West Greenland were 2.0-18 mg BT/kg ww and 6.3-6.9 mg Hg/kg ww, respectively. The concentrations of butyltin and mercury were both found to be higher in stranded than in by-caught harbour porpoises but only the butyltin concentration was significantly higher in stranded porpoises in the age group 1-5 years. These substances are suspected of inducing adverse effects on immune and endocrine systems in mammals and they may thereby pose a threat to the animals. This study suggests that organotin compounds are also important, when assessing the risks of contaminants on the health and viability of harbour porpoises in Danish waters.
PubMed ID
16227073 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of PBDEs in stranded harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) from the Northeastern United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296611
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2018 Jul; 138:96-101
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-2018
Author
Brianne K Soulen
Barney J Venables
David W Johnston
Aaron P Roberts
Author Affiliation
Dep. of Biological Sciences, Advanced Environmental Research Institute, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76201, USA. Electronic address: brianne.soulen@unt.edu.
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2018 Jul; 138:96-101
Date
Jul-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Environmental monitoring
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - metabolism
New England
Seals, Earless - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - metabolism
Abstract
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are highly lipophilic components of brominated flame retardants that are environmentally persistent and bioaccumulate. PBDEs are taken up from the gastrointestinal tract and accumulate mainly in fat depots and liver tissues. Seal species inhabiting Arctic and sub-Arctic regions can have upwards of 30% of their body mass composed of blubber. When those blubber stores are mobilized for energy, stored toxicants are also released into circulation. Most studies reporting accumulation of PBDEs in seals have focused on harbor and grey seals with few examining harp and hooded seals. In this study, PBDEs concentrations were analyzed in seal blubber from 21 stranded harp and 9 stranded hooded seals sampled along the northeast coast of the U.S. (1999-2010). A PBDE congener profile was determined for each individual. The results show that both species of seals are accumulating PBDEs with BDE-47 being the dominant congener. Mean ?PBDE concentrations in harp seals were 70.55?±?33.59?ng/g ww and for hooded seals 94.28?±?42.65?ng/g ww. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies reporting a decrease in bioaccumulation with an increase in bromination. For both species, BDE-47 represented the highest percentage of the ?PBDEs, composing over 50% of the ?PBDEs in harp seals. When compared to stranding condition code, animals found alive had overall higher PBDE concentrations than those found in a state of moderate decomposition. This difference could be due to decreased blubber levels in the decomposed animals or potential degradation of the compounds in the blubber. Almost all seals used in this study were yearlings which is the most likely age class to strand. Yearling seals are at a crucial stage of development, especially of their immune system, which can be impacted by high levels of contaminants like PBDEs and increase the susceptibility to disease.
PubMed ID
29706368 View in PubMed
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Acidic deposition and human exposure to toxic metals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234401
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1987 Dec;67(2-3):101-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1987
Author
B G Svensson
A. Björnham
A. Schütz
U. Lettevall
A. Nilsson
S. Skerfving
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1987 Dec;67(2-3):101-15
Date
Dec-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cadmium - blood
Environmental Exposure
Health status
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Lead - blood
Life Style
Mercury - blood
Metals - analysis - blood
Questionnaires
Selenium - blood
Sweden
Water Pollutants - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
Acid precipitation affects the solubility of several metals in aquatic systems and in soil. Cadmium levels in tap water samples from geological areas having low resistance to acidic pollution were significantly higher than those in samples from a neighbouring reference area where there was a different geological structure. The median cadmium levels and pH values were 0.14 microgram l-1 and 5.6 respectively, for the acidic areas compared with 0.07 microgram l-1 and 6.4 respectively for the reference area. Further, there was a significant inverse relationship between both cadmium and lead contents and the pH values of the samples. The mobility of the metals was thus dependent on the acidity. The blood lead levels in 195 subjects from the acidic areas were lower than those in 91 subjects from the reference area (medians 60 vs. 70 micrograms l-1); no significant differences were found in blood cadmium or blood mercury levels. Subjects in the acidic areas had lower plasma selenium levels than those from the reference area (medians 85 vs. 90 micrograms l-1); the difference was mainly attributed to subjects with private wells. The data may indicate a negative effect of the acidic pollution on selenium intake via water and/or foods. There was also a positive relationship between intake of fish on the one hand and blood mercury and plasma selenium on the other, which is in accordance with the role of fish as a source of these metals.
PubMed ID
3438737 View in PubMed
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Acidification remediation alternatives: exploring the temporal dimension with cost benefit analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143359
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):40-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Göran Bostedt
Stefan Löfgren
Sophia Innala
Kevin Bishop
Author Affiliation
Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden. goran.bostedt@sekon.slu.se
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):40-8
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Conservation of Natural Resources
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - economics
Environmental Remediation - economics
Fresh Water - analysis - chemistry
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Socioeconomic Factors
Soil - analysis
Sulfur Compounds
Sweden
Time Factors
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - economics
Abstract
Acidification of soils and surface waters caused by acid deposition is still a major problem in southern Scandinavia, despite clear signs of recovery. Besides emission control, liming of lakes, streams, and wetlands is currently used to ameliorate acidification in Sweden. An alternative strategy is forest soil liming to restore the acidified upland soils from which much acidified runoff originates. This cost-benefit analysis compared these liming strategies with a special emphasis on the time perspective for expected benefits. Benefits transfer was used to estimate use values for sport ffishing and nonuse values in terms of existence values. The results show that large-scale forest soil liming is not socioeconomically profitable, while lake liming is, if it is done efficiently-in other words, if only acidified surface waters are treated. The beguiling logic of "solving" an environmental problem at its source (soils), rather than continuing to treat the symptoms (surface waters), is thus misleading.
Notes
Cites: Nature. 2007 Nov 22;450(7169):537-4018033294
PubMed ID
20496651 View in PubMed
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[Activities of proteinases in invertebrate animals--potential objects of fish nutrition. Effects of temperature, pH, and heavy metals]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84976
Source
Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007 Sep-Oct;43(5):404-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kuz'mina V V
Ushakova N V
Source
Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007 Sep-Oct;43(5):404-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Cold Climate
Digestive Physiology
Digestive System - enzymology
Evolution
Fishes
Food chain
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Invertebrates - drug effects - enzymology - physiology
Metals, Heavy - toxicity
Peptide Hydrolases - metabolism
Phylogeny
Temperature
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Differences in the degree of separate and combined effects of temperature, pH, and heavy metals (zinc, copper) on the trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinase activities have been established in the whole body of some invertebrate animals - potential objects of fish nutrition: pond snail Lymnaeae stagnalis, orb snail Planorbis purpura, zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, oligochaetae Tubifex sp. and Lumbriculus sp. in total, chironomid larvae Chironimus sp. and Ch. riparus, as well as crustacean zooplankton. It has been shown that enzymes of the potential victim at a low temperature can compensate low activity of intestinal proteinases of fish bentho- and planktophages.
PubMed ID
18038636 View in PubMed
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The Acute and Delayed Mortality of the Northern Krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) When Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304631
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2020 Nov; 105(5):705-710
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2020
Author
Rosa H Escobar-Lux
Ole B Samuelsen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Marine Research, Austevoll Research Station, Sauganeset 16, 5392, Storebø, Norway. rosa.escobar@hi.no.
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2020 Nov; 105(5):705-710
Date
Nov-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Aquaculture - methods
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ecosystem
Euphausiacea - drug effects - growth & development
Hydrogen Peroxide - toxicity
Lethal Dose 50
Norway
Seafood
Survival Analysis
Toxicity Tests, Acute
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Bath treatment pharmaceuticals used to control sea lice infestations in the salmonid industry, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are released directly into the environment where non-target organisms are at risk of exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the threshold concentrations for mortality of the Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, a major component of the north Atlantic marine ecosystem. To assess the lethal effects of H2O2, we carried out a series of 1 h acute toxicity tests and assessed mortality through a 48 h post-exposure period. One-hour exposure to 170 mg/L, corresponding to 10% of the recommended H2O2 treatment, caused 100% mortality and a subsequent acute median-lethal concentration LC50 value of 32.5 mg/L. Increased mortality was observed with time in all exposed groups, resulting in successively lower LC50 values during the post-exposure period. The suggested H2O2 concentrations have the potential of causing negative effects to the Northern krill.
PubMed ID
32979082 View in PubMed
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Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257349
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2014 Oct;155:160-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Ida Beathe Overjordet
Dag Altin
Torunn Berg
Bjørn Munro Jenssen
Geir Wing Gabrielsen
Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Biology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway; SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Environmental Technology, N-7465 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: ida.beathe.overjordet@sintef.no.
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2014 Oct;155:160-5
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Copepoda - drug effects
Lethal Dose 50
Mercury - toxicity
Oceans and Seas
Temperature
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level.
PubMed ID
25036619 View in PubMed
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1266 records – page 1 of 127.