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Abundance of actinobacteria and production of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in Danish streams and fish ponds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83047
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2005 Apr 1;52(2):265-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2005
Author
Klausen Cecilie
Nicolaisen Mette H
Strobel Bjarne W
Warnecke Falk
Nielsen Jeppe L
Jørgensen Niels O G
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2005 Apr 1;52(2):265-78
Date
Apr-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actinobacteria - genetics - isolation & purification - metabolism
Animals
Aquaculture
Bornanes - analysis - metabolism
Denmark
Fishes - physiology
Fresh Water - chemistry - microbiology
Naphthols - analysis - metabolism
Nitrogen - analysis - metabolism
Seasons
Abstract
Occurrence of the odours geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in freshwater environments indicates that odour-producing organisms are commonly occurring. In the present study, we assumed actinomycetes to be a major source of the odours. Seasonal concentrations of odours and abundance of Actinobacteria, which includes actinomycetes and other G+ and high GC bacteria, were determined in one oligotrophic and two eutrophic freshwater streams, as well as in aquacultures connected to these streams, in Denmark. Concentrations of geosmin and MIB ranged from 2 to 9 ng l(-1) and were lowest in the winter. Passage of stream water in the aquacultures increased the amount of geosmin and MIB by up to 55% and 110%, respectively. Densities of actinobacteria were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH) technique and were found to make up from 4 to 38 x 10(7) cells l(-1), corresponding to 3-9% of the total bacterial populations. The lowest densities of actinobacteria occurred in the winter. Filamentous bacteria targeted by the FISH probe made up about 2.7-38% (average was 22%) of the actinobacteria and were expected to be actinomycetes. Combined microautoradiography and CARD-FISH demonstrated that 10-38% (incorporation of 3H-thymidine) and 41-65% (incorporation of 3H-leucine) of the actinobacteria were metabolically active. The proportion of active actinobacteria increased up to 2-fold during passage of stream water in the aquacultures, and up to 98% of the cells became active. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in 8 bacterial isolates with typical actinomycete morphology from the streams and ponds demonstrated that most of them belonged to the genus Streptomyces. The isolated actinomycetes produced geosmin at rates from 0.1 to 35 aggeosmin bacterium(-1)h(-1). MIB was produced at similar rates in 5 isolates, whereas no MIB was produced by three of the isolates. Addition of the odours to stream water demonstrated that indigenous stream bacteria were capable of reducing the odours, and that enrichment with LB medium stimulated the degradation. Our study shows that bacterial communities in freshwater include geosmin- and MIB-producing actinobacteria. However, the mechanisms controlling production as well as degradation of the odours in natural waters appear complex and require further research.
PubMed ID
16329912 View in PubMed
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Acoustic emission during cooling and heating of aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycols of molecular masses from 300 to 3000.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9640
Source
Cryobiology. 2003 Aug;47(1):40-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
A V Zinchenko
V D Zinchenko
Author Affiliation
Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 23 Pereyaslavskaya str., Kharkov 61015, Ukraine. cryo@online.kharkov.ua
Source
Cryobiology. 2003 Aug;47(1):40-3
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Cold
Cryopreservation
Crystallization
Heat
Molecular Weight
Polyethylene Glycols - chemistry
Solutions - chemistry
Water - chemistry
Abstract
The object of this research is to study acoustic emissions (AE) in aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of molecular masses from 300 to 3000 during cooling at 100 degrees C/min and heating at 70 degrees C/min in the temperature range from 0 to -196 degrees C. The dependence of AE intensity on PEG concentration and molecular mass is analysed. The AE intensity correlated with the crystalline to amorphous phase ratio in the frozen system.
PubMed ID
12963411 View in PubMed
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Algae biomass cultivation in nitrogen rich biogas digestate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272211
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;72(10):1723-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
I. Krustok
J G Diaz
M. Odlare
E. Nehrenheim
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;72(10):1723-9
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ammonium Compounds - metabolism
Biofuels
Biomass
Lakes
Metals, Heavy - analysis - metabolism
Microalgae - growth & development - metabolism
Nitrogen - metabolism
Sweden
Waste Water - chemistry
Abstract
Because microalgae are known for quick biomass growth and nutrient uptake, there has been much interest in their use in research on wastewater treatment methods. While many studies have concentrated on the algal treatment of wastewaters with low to medium ammonium concentrations, there are several liquid waste streams with high ammonium concentrations that microalgae could potentially treat. The aim of this paper was to test ammonium tolerance of the indigenous algae community of Lake Mälaren and to use this mixed consortia of algae to remove nutrients from biogas digestate. Algae from Lake Mälaren were cultivated in Jaworski's Medium containing a range of ammonium concentrations and the resulting algal growth was determined. The algae were able to grow at NH4-N concentrations of up to 200 mg L(-1) after which there was significant inhibition. To test the effectiveness of the lake water algae on the treatment of biogas digestate, different pre-cultivation set-ups and biogas digestate concentrations were tested. It was determined that mixing pre-cultivated suspension algae with 25% of biogas digestate by volume, resulting in an ammonium concentration of around 300 mg L(-1), produced the highest algal growth. The algae were effective in removing 72.8±2.2% of NH4-N and 41.4±41.4% of PO4-P.
PubMed ID
26540532 View in PubMed
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Alkyl bicarbamates supramolecular organogelators with effective selective gelation and high oil recovery from oil/water mixtures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280372
Source
Chemosphere. 2017 Jan;167:178-187
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Yongzhen Wang
Songquan Wu
Xingru Yan
Tao Ma
Lu Shao
Yuyan Liu
Zhanhu Guo
Source
Chemosphere. 2017 Jan;167:178-187
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbamates - chemistry
Environmental Restoration and Remediation - methods
Gels - chemistry
Oils - chemistry - isolation & purification
Petroleum Pollution
Russia
Water - chemistry
Abstract
A series of alkyl bicarbamates supramolecular organogelators were synthesized with different structures and lengths of alkyl chains. The driving forces for the self-assembly of small molecules, including the intermolecular H bonding, p-p stacking and van der Waals interactions, played an important role in the formation of different 3D network structures, i.e., fibers, ribbons, sheets, and prisms. And a probable formation process of the gel networks was proposed. Furthermore, the phase-selective gelling performances were investigated for oil removal from aqueous solution. Interestingly, the gelling properties were found to be affected by the length and structure of alkyl chains, while some gelators with intermediate alkyl chain lengths could effectively gel all the tested oils from water surface within 15 min, such as Russian crude oil, diesel, gasoline, soybean oil, peanut oil, olive oil, cyclohexane, hexane and ethyl acetate. Advantageously, fast gelation, high rate of oil removal (>95%) and excellent oil retention rate (close to 100%) were realized in the recovery of oil spills from water surface. This kind of supramolecular gelators demonstrates good potential applications in the delivery or removal of organic pollution from oil/water mixtures.
PubMed ID
27718430 View in PubMed
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Ammonia sanitization of blackwater for safe use as fertilizer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268278
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;71(5):795-800
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jörgen Fidjeland
Sven-Erik Svensson
Björn Vinnerås
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;71(5):795-800
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ammonia - chemistry
Animals
Ascaris
Calcium Compounds - chemistry
Disinfection - methods
Enterococcus
Enterococcus faecalis
Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli O157
Fertilizers
Oxides - chemistry
Salmonella
Salmonella typhimurium
Sweden
Temperature
Urea - chemistry
Waste Water - chemistry - microbiology - parasitology
Abstract
Source-separated blackwater from low-flush toilets contains plant-available nutrients and can be used as a fertilizer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact on pathogen inactivation when treating blackwater with urea and/or lime. Blackwater was spiked with Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157, Enterococcus faecalis, and Ascaris suum eggs, and treated with urea and/or lime in concentrations up to 0.1% w/w. The bottles were kept in a storage facility (manure slurry tank) for 102 days while monitoring the pathogen concentrations. The treatment time needed to meet the requirement for Salmonella and E. coli reduction could be reduced at least six-fold. The enterococci were more persistent, and only the highest treatment doses had a significantly higher inactivation than the controls. The Ascaris egg viability was only reduced by around 50%, so higher urea/lime doses and/or longer treatment times are required to fulfill the treatment requirements of 3 log10 reductions of parasite eggs.
PubMed ID
25768229 View in PubMed
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Anaerobic co-digestion of acetate-rich with lignin-rich wastewater and the effect of hydrotalcite addition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279741
Source
Bioresour Technol. 2016 Oct;218:84-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Lourdes Rodriguez-Chiang
Jordi Llorca
Olli Dahl
Source
Bioresour Technol. 2016 Oct;218:84-91
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetates - chemistry - metabolism
Aluminum Hydroxide - chemistry
Anaerobiosis
Biodegradation, Environmental
Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
Finland
Lignin - chemistry - metabolism
Magnesium Hydroxide - chemistry
Methane - biosynthesis
Waste Disposal, Fluid - methods
Waste Water - chemistry
Abstract
The methane potential and biodegradability of different ratios of acetate and lignin-rich effluents from a neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp mill were investigated. Results showed ultimate methane yields up to 333±5mLCH4/gCOD when only acetate-rich substrate was added and subsequently lower methane potentials of 192±4mLCH4/gCOD when the lignin fraction was increased. The presence of lignin showed a linear decay in methane production, resulting in a 41% decrease in methane when the lignin-rich feed had a 30% increase. A negative linear correlation between lignin content and biodegradability was also observed. Furthermore, the effect of hydrotalcite (HT) addition was evaluated and showed increase in methane potential of up to 8%, a faster production rate and higher soluble lignin removal (7-12% higher). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies between 64 and 83% were obtained for all samples.
PubMed ID
27347802 View in PubMed
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Analysis of stimulant drugs in the wastewater of five Nordic capitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295878
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jun 15; 627:1039-1047
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-15-2018
Author
Arndís Sue Ching Löve
Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba
Malcolm J Reid
Aino Kankaanpää
Teemu Gunnar
Maria Dam
Kristín Ólafsdóttir
Kevin V Thomas
Author Affiliation
University of Iceland, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hofsvallagata 53, 107 Reykjavik, Iceland. Electronic address: asl2@hi.is.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jun 15; 627:1039-1047
Date
Jun-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Cities
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Europe
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Street Drugs - analysis
Substance Abuse Detection
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Waste Water - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Wastewater-based epidemiology is an efficient way to assess illicit drug use, complementing currently used methods retrieved from different data sources. The aim of this study is to compare stimulant drug use in five Nordic capital cities that include for the first time wastewater samples from Torshavn in the Faroe Islands. Currently there are no published reports that compare stimulant drug use in these Nordic capitals. All wastewater samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results were compared with data published by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction based on illicit drugs in wastewater from over 50 European cities. Confirming previous reports, the results showed high amphetamine loads compared with other European countries. Very little apparent abuse of stimulant drugs was detected in Torshavn. Methamphetamine loads were the highest from Helsinki of the Nordic countries, indicating substantial fluctuations in the availability of the drug compared with previous studies. Methamphetamine loads from Oslo confirmed that the use continues to be high. Estimated cocaine use was found to be in the lower range compared with other cities in the southern and western part of Europe. Ecstasy and cocaine showed clear variations between weekdays and weekends, indicating recreational use. This study further demonstrates geographical trends in the stimulant drug market in five Nordic capitals, which enables a better comparison with other areas of the continent.
PubMed ID
29426122 View in PubMed
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Anionic, Cationic, and Nonionic Surfactants in Atmospheric Aerosols from the Baltic Coast at Askö, Sweden: Implications for Cloud Droplet Activation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277406
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Mar 15;50(6):2974-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2016
Author
Violaine Gérard
Barbara Nozière
Christine Baduel
Ludovic Fine
Amanda A Frossard
Ronald C Cohen
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Mar 15;50(6):2974-82
Date
Mar-15-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols - chemistry
Anions - chemistry
Atmosphere - chemistry
Cations - chemistry
Environmental monitoring
Micelles
Surface Tension
Surface-Active Agents - chemistry
Sweden
Water - chemistry
Abstract
Recent analyses of atmospheric aerosols from different regions have demonstrated the ubiquitous presence of strong surfactants and evidenced surface tension values, s, below 40 mN m(-1), suspected to enhance the cloud-forming potential of these aerosols. In this work, this approach was further improved and combined with absolute concentration measurements of aerosol surfactants by colorimetric titration. This analysis was applied to PM2.5 aerosols collected at the Baltic station of Ask?, Sweden, from July to October 2010. Strong surfactants were found in all the sampled aerosols, with s = (32-40) ? 1 mN m(-1) and concentrations of at least 27 ? 6 mM or 104 ? 21 pmol m(-3). The absolute surface tension curves and critical micelle concentrations (CMC) determined for these aerosol surfactants show that (1) surfactants are concentrated enough in atmospheric particles to strongly depress the surface tension until activation, and (2) the surface tension does not follow the Szyszkowski equation during activation but is nearly constant and minimal, which provides new insights on cloud droplet activation. In addition, both the CMCs determined and the correlation (R(2) ~ 0.7) between aerosol surfactant concentrations and chlorophyll-a seawater concentrations suggest a marine and biological origin for these compounds.
PubMed ID
26895279 View in PubMed
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An uncertainty budget for the measurement of ethanol in blood by headspace gas chromatography.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9348
Source
J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Sep;28(6):456-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Jesper Kristiansen
Henning W Petersen
Author Affiliation
The National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Sep;28(6):456-63
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Body Water - chemistry
Calibration
Central Nervous System Depressants - blood
Chromatography, Gas
Denmark
Ethanol - blood
Humans
Indicators and Reagents
Reference Standards
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
An uncertainty budget was constructed for the measurement of ethanol in blood by headspace gas chromatography. The uncertainty budget, covering the analytical range of ethanol concentrations up to 3.00 g/kg, included analytical uncertainty components, traceability uncertainty components, and effects caused by interindividual variation in blood water content. The analytical combined standard uncertainty was estimated from duplicate measurements of real samples and included contributions from headspace recovery, variation between columns, injection, repeatability of analytical signals, and statistical uncertainty of the calibration function. The traceability uncertainty was estimated in a sub-budget based on information about the calibrator and about the preparation of the aqueous standards. Two uncertainty components depended on the interindividual variation in blood water content. First, it caused uncertainty on the density of the blood, and second, it had an effect on the gas phase concentration of ethanol when doing the headspace sampling. These effects as well as their covariance were included in the uncertainty budget. For fresh blood samples, the analytical uncertainty was the dominating uncertainty component, accounting for approximately 90% of the variance. For blood samples collected 100 h postmortem, the interindividual variation in blood water content was the largest uncertainty component. It was demonstrated that subtracting a "safety margin" of 0.1 g/kg from the results was sufficient to keep the risk of committing a type 1 error below 0.1% in ethanol concentrations ranging up to 2 g/kg for fresh blood samples. This risk was higher for postmortem blood samples because of the higher uncertainty of measurement, but still less than approximately 1.4%.
PubMed ID
15516296 View in PubMed
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Application of ALOGPS to predict 1-octanol/water distribution coefficients, logP, and logD, of AstraZeneca in-house database.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9350
Source
J Pharm Sci. 2004 Dec;93(12):3103-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Igor V Tetko
Pierre Bruneau
Author Affiliation
Biomedical Department, IBPC, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Murmanskaya 1, Kyiv, 02094, Ukraine. itetko@vcclab.org
Source
J Pharm Sci. 2004 Dec;93(12):3103-10
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
1-Octanol - chemistry - metabolism
Databases, Factual - statistics & numerical data
Drug Industry - methods - statistics & numerical data
Predictive value of tests
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Software
Water - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
The ALOGPS 2.1 was developed to predict 1-octanol/water partition coefficients, logP, and aqueous solubility of neutral compounds. An exclusive feature of this program is its ability to incorporate new user-provided data by means of self-learning properties of Associative Neural Networks. Using this feature, it calculated a similar performance, RMSE = 0.7 and mean average error 0.5, for 2569 neutral logP, and 8122 pH-dependent logD(7.4), distribution coefficients from the AstraZeneca "in-house" database. The high performance of the program for the logD(7.4) prediction looks surprising, because this property also depends on ionization constants pKa. Therefore, logD(7.4) is considered to be more difficult to predict than its neutral analog. We explain and illustrate this result and, moreover, discuss a possible application of the approach to calculate other pharmacokinetic and biological activities of chemicals important for drug development.
PubMed ID
15514985 View in PubMed
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253 records – page 1 of 26.