In Norway, the largest reported quantities of radioactive discharges and radioactive waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) come from the oil and gas sector, and smaller quantities of other NORM waste are also produced by industrial or mining processes. The Gulen final repository for radioactive waste from the oil and gas industry from the Norwegian continental shelf was opened in 2008 and has a capacity of 6000 tonnes. As of 1 January 2011, a new regulation was enforced whereby radioactive waste and radioactive pollution was integrated in the Pollution Control Act from 1981. This means that radioactive waste and radioactive pollution are now regulated under the same legal framework as all other pollutants and hazardous wastes. The regulation establishes two sets of criteria defining radioactive waste: a lower value for when waste is considered to be radioactive waste, and a higher value, in most cases, for when this waste must be disposed of in a final waste repository. For example, waste containing = 1 Bq/g of Ra-226 is defined as radioactive waste, while radioactive waste containing = 10 Bq/g of Ra-226 must be disposed of in a final repository. Radioactive waste between 1 and 10B q/g can be handled and disposed of by waste companies who have a licence for handling hazardous waste according to the Pollution Control Act. Alternatively, they will need a separate licence for handling radioactive waste from the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The goal of the new regulation is that all radioactive waste should be handled and stored in a safe manner, and discharges should be controlled through a licensing regime in order to avoid/not pose unnecessary risk to humans or the environment. This paper will elaborate on the new regulation of radioactive waste and the principles of NORM management in Norway in view of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's 2007 Recommendations.
In this study, an interval-parameter two-stage mixed integer linear programming (ITMILP) model is developed for supporting long-term planning of waste management activities in the City of Regina. In the ITMILP, both two-stage stochastic programming and interval linear programming are introduced into a general mixed integer linear programming framework. Uncertainties expressed as not only probability density functions but also discrete intervals can be reflected. The model can help tackle the dynamic, interactive and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system in the City, and can address issues concerning plans for cost-effective waste diversion and landfill prolongation. Three scenarios are considered based on different waste management policies. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated. They are valuable for supporting the adjustment or justification of the existing waste flow allocation patterns, the long-term capacity planning of the City's waste management system, and the formulation of local policies and regulations regarding waste generation and management.
Antibiotic-resistant organisms enter into water environments from human and animal sources. These bacteria are able to spread their genes into water-indigenous microbes, which also contain resistance genes. On the contrary, many antibiotics from industrial origin circulate in water environments, potentially altering microbial ecosystems. Risk assessment protocols for antibiotics and resistant bacteria in water, based on better systems for antibiotics detection and antibiotic-resistance microbial source tracking, are starting to be discussed. Methods to reduce resistant bacterial load in wastewaters, and the amount of antimicrobial agents, in most cases originated in hospitals and farms, include optimization of disinfection procedures and management of wastewater and manure. A policy for preventing mixing human-originated and animal-originated bacteria with environmental organisms seems advisable.
NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge in the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. This project addresses treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water, and production of food in remote communities of Alaska. The project focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, care for the environment, and economic opportunity through technology transfer. The challenge is to implement the technologies in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. NASA goals are technology selection, system design and methods development of regenerative life support systems for planetary and Lunar bases and other space exploration missions. The ALSEE project will provide similar advanced technologies to address the multiple problems facing the remote communities of Alaska and provide an extreme environment testbed for future space applications. These technologies have never been assembled for this purpose. They offer an integrated approach to solving pressing problems in remote communities.
A comparative analysis of Russian and European legislation concerning to the waste management has been performed. There were revealed principal differences in Russian and European legislation in methodology of the waste classification. In Europe, there is no methodology for breaking up waste into hazard classes, and for the denomination of the danger there are used hazard lists which fail to give information about the extent of their danger. Medical waste in the European legislation are not selected into the separate category as being included in terms of articles and lists in the annexes to the directives or other legal acts. There are considered requirements of the Russian and European legislation in the area of the landfill waste burial. In the frameworks of the proposals for the implementation of international experience in the waste management there was drafted the project of Sanitary rules on hygiene requirements to the arrangement and the contents of landfills for residential solid waste, which includes requirements concerning not only residential solid waste, but also medical waste.
This study focuses on commercial waste, which has received less attention than household waste in regards to greenhouse gas emission research. First, the global warming potential (GWP) of commercial waste management was calculated. Second, the impacts of different waste fractions and the processes of waste management were recognised. Third, the key areas on which to focus when aiming to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of commercial waste management were determined. This study was conducted on the waste generated by a real hypermarket in South-East Finland and included eight different waste fractions. The waste treatment plants were selected based on the actual situation. Three different scenarios were employed to evaluate the environmental impact of managing mixed waste: landfilling, combustion and more accurate source separation. The GaBi software and impact assessment methodology CML 2001 were used to perform a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the waste management. The results indicated that the total GWP of commercial waste management could be reduced by 93% by directing the mixed waste to combustion instead of landfill. A further 5% GWP reduction could be achieved by more accurate source separation of the mixed waste. Utilisation of energy waste had the most significant influence (41-52%) on the total GWP (-880 to -860?kgCO2-eq./t), followed by landfilling of mixed waste (influence 15-23% on the total GWP, 430?kgCO2-eq./t), recycling polyethylene (PE) plastic (influence 18-21% on the total GWP, -1800?kgCO2-eq./t) and recycling cardboard (influence 11-13% on the total GWP, 51?kgCO2-eq./t). A key focus should be placed on treatment processes and substitutions, especially in terms of substitutions of energy waste and PE plastic. This study also clarified the importance of sorting PE plastic, even though the share of this waste fraction was not substantial. The results of this paper were compared to those of previous studies. The output of this analysis indicated that the total GWP can be significantly reduced by identifying an alternative recycling or incineration location for cardboard where it is used to substitute virgin material or replace fossil fuels respectively. In conclusion, it is essential to note that waste management companies have a notable influence on the emissions of commercial waste management because they choose the places at which the waste fractions are treated and utilised.