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38 records – page 1 of 4.

Algae biomass cultivation in nitrogen rich biogas digestate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272211
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;72(10):1723-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
I. Krustok
J G Diaz
M. Odlare
E. Nehrenheim
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;72(10):1723-9
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ammonium Compounds - metabolism
Biofuels
Biomass
Lakes
Metals, Heavy - analysis - metabolism
Microalgae - growth & development - metabolism
Nitrogen - metabolism
Sweden
Waste Water - chemistry
Abstract
Because microalgae are known for quick biomass growth and nutrient uptake, there has been much interest in their use in research on wastewater treatment methods. While many studies have concentrated on the algal treatment of wastewaters with low to medium ammonium concentrations, there are several liquid waste streams with high ammonium concentrations that microalgae could potentially treat. The aim of this paper was to test ammonium tolerance of the indigenous algae community of Lake Mälaren and to use this mixed consortia of algae to remove nutrients from biogas digestate. Algae from Lake Mälaren were cultivated in Jaworski's Medium containing a range of ammonium concentrations and the resulting algal growth was determined. The algae were able to grow at NH4-N concentrations of up to 200 mg L(-1) after which there was significant inhibition. To test the effectiveness of the lake water algae on the treatment of biogas digestate, different pre-cultivation set-ups and biogas digestate concentrations were tested. It was determined that mixing pre-cultivated suspension algae with 25% of biogas digestate by volume, resulting in an ammonium concentration of around 300 mg L(-1), produced the highest algal growth. The algae were effective in removing 72.8±2.2% of NH4-N and 41.4±41.4% of PO4-P.
PubMed ID
26540532 View in PubMed
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Ammonia sanitization of blackwater for safe use as fertilizer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268278
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;71(5):795-800
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jörgen Fidjeland
Sven-Erik Svensson
Björn Vinnerås
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;71(5):795-800
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ammonia - chemistry
Animals
Ascaris
Calcium Compounds - chemistry
Disinfection - methods
Enterococcus
Enterococcus faecalis
Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli O157
Fertilizers
Oxides - chemistry
Salmonella
Salmonella typhimurium
Sweden
Temperature
Urea - chemistry
Waste Water - chemistry - microbiology - parasitology
Abstract
Source-separated blackwater from low-flush toilets contains plant-available nutrients and can be used as a fertilizer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact on pathogen inactivation when treating blackwater with urea and/or lime. Blackwater was spiked with Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157, Enterococcus faecalis, and Ascaris suum eggs, and treated with urea and/or lime in concentrations up to 0.1% w/w. The bottles were kept in a storage facility (manure slurry tank) for 102 days while monitoring the pathogen concentrations. The treatment time needed to meet the requirement for Salmonella and E. coli reduction could be reduced at least six-fold. The enterococci were more persistent, and only the highest treatment doses had a significantly higher inactivation than the controls. The Ascaris egg viability was only reduced by around 50%, so higher urea/lime doses and/or longer treatment times are required to fulfill the treatment requirements of 3 log10 reductions of parasite eggs.
PubMed ID
25768229 View in PubMed
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Anaerobic co-digestion of acetate-rich with lignin-rich wastewater and the effect of hydrotalcite addition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279741
Source
Bioresour Technol. 2016 Oct;218:84-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Lourdes Rodriguez-Chiang
Jordi Llorca
Olli Dahl
Source
Bioresour Technol. 2016 Oct;218:84-91
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetates - chemistry - metabolism
Aluminum Hydroxide - chemistry
Anaerobiosis
Biodegradation, Environmental
Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
Finland
Lignin - chemistry - metabolism
Magnesium Hydroxide - chemistry
Methane - biosynthesis
Waste Disposal, Fluid - methods
Waste Water - chemistry
Abstract
The methane potential and biodegradability of different ratios of acetate and lignin-rich effluents from a neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp mill were investigated. Results showed ultimate methane yields up to 333±5mLCH4/gCOD when only acetate-rich substrate was added and subsequently lower methane potentials of 192±4mLCH4/gCOD when the lignin fraction was increased. The presence of lignin showed a linear decay in methane production, resulting in a 41% decrease in methane when the lignin-rich feed had a 30% increase. A negative linear correlation between lignin content and biodegradability was also observed. Furthermore, the effect of hydrotalcite (HT) addition was evaluated and showed increase in methane potential of up to 8%, a faster production rate and higher soluble lignin removal (7-12% higher). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies between 64 and 83% were obtained for all samples.
PubMed ID
27347802 View in PubMed
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Analysis of stimulant drugs in the wastewater of five Nordic capitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295878
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jun 15; 627:1039-1047
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-15-2018
Author
Arndís Sue Ching Löve
Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba
Malcolm J Reid
Aino Kankaanpää
Teemu Gunnar
Maria Dam
Kristín Ólafsdóttir
Kevin V Thomas
Author Affiliation
University of Iceland, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hofsvallagata 53, 107 Reykjavik, Iceland. Electronic address: asl2@hi.is.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jun 15; 627:1039-1047
Date
Jun-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Cities
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Europe
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Street Drugs - analysis
Substance Abuse Detection
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Waste Water - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Wastewater-based epidemiology is an efficient way to assess illicit drug use, complementing currently used methods retrieved from different data sources. The aim of this study is to compare stimulant drug use in five Nordic capital cities that include for the first time wastewater samples from Torshavn in the Faroe Islands. Currently there are no published reports that compare stimulant drug use in these Nordic capitals. All wastewater samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results were compared with data published by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction based on illicit drugs in wastewater from over 50 European cities. Confirming previous reports, the results showed high amphetamine loads compared with other European countries. Very little apparent abuse of stimulant drugs was detected in Torshavn. Methamphetamine loads were the highest from Helsinki of the Nordic countries, indicating substantial fluctuations in the availability of the drug compared with previous studies. Methamphetamine loads from Oslo confirmed that the use continues to be high. Estimated cocaine use was found to be in the lower range compared with other cities in the southern and western part of Europe. Ecstasy and cocaine showed clear variations between weekdays and weekends, indicating recreational use. This study further demonstrates geographical trends in the stimulant drug market in five Nordic capitals, which enables a better comparison with other areas of the continent.
PubMed ID
29426122 View in PubMed
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Application of a solar UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process to oil sands process-affected water remediation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267997
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Aug 19;48(16):9692-701
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-19-2014
Author
Zengquan Shu
Chao Li
Miodrag Belosevic
James R Bolton
Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Aug 19;48(16):9692-701
Date
Aug-19-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Aliivibrio fischeri
Canada
Carboxylic Acids - metabolism
Chlorine - chemistry
Environmental Restoration and Remediation - methods
Oil and Gas Fields
Oxidation-Reduction - radiation effects
Ultraviolet Rays
Waste Water - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The solar UV/chlorine process has emerged as a novel advanced oxidation process for industrial and municipal wastewaters. Currently, its practical application to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) remediation has been studied to treat fresh OSPW retained in large tailings ponds, which can cause significant adverse environmental impacts on ground and surface waters in Northern Alberta, Canada. Degradation of naphthenic acids (NAs) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW was investigated. In a laboratory-scale UV/chlorine treatment, the NAs degradation was clearly structure-dependent and hydroxyl radical-based. In terms of the NAs degradation rate, the raw OSPW (pH ~ 8.3) rates were higher than those at an alkaline condition (pH = 10). Under actual sunlight, direct solar photolysis partially degraded fluorophore organic compounds, as indicated by the qualitative synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) of the OSPW, but did not impact NAs degradation. The solar/chlorine process effectively removed NAs (75-84% removal) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW in the presence of 200 or 300 mg L(-1) OCl(-). The acute toxicity of OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was reduced after the solar/chlorine treatment. However, the OSPW toxicity toward goldfish primary kidney macrophages after solar/chlorine treatment showed no obvious toxicity reduction versus that of untreated OSPW, which warrants further study for process optimization.
PubMed ID
25051215 View in PubMed
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Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268824
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Jun;129:74-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Marko Filipovic
Urs Berger
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Jun;129:74-80
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cities
Drinking Water - chemistry
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Sewage - chemistry
Sweden
Waste Water - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Purification - methods
Abstract
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water.
PubMed ID
25139477 View in PubMed
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Behaviour of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and eight of their metabolites during wastewater treatment studied by hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257942
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jul 1;485-486:300-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2014
Author
Estelle Larsson
Said al-Hamimi
Jan Åke Jönsson
Author Affiliation
Center for Analysis and Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address: estelle.larsson@chem.lu.se.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jul 1;485-486:300-8
Date
Jul-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal - analysis - chemistry
Chromatography, Liquid
Cities
Liquid Phase Microextraction
Models, Chemical
Sweden
Waste Disposal, Fluid - methods
Waste Water - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
In this work hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was applied for the determination of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen as well as eight of their known human metabolites in wastewater samples. Extraction time and addition of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) to the liquid membrane were evaluated resulting in a method with an optimal extraction time of 5h and 5% (w/V) TOPO addition to the membrane liquid (di-n-hexyl ether). With the optimized method, enrichment factors ranged between 778 and 4830. The method was applied for analysis of samples collected from Källby wastewater treatment plant in the city of Lund, Sweden. Samples were collected from the influent, water entering as well as exiting the conventional activated sludge treatment and the effluent to study the behaviour of these compounds during the treatment process. All twelve substances were found in the influent and for all four drugs, higher concentrations were detected of the metabolites than the parent compounds. Highest concentrations were detected of o-desmethylnaproxen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen and carboxyibuprofen (average influent concentrations of 45, 35 and 63 µg/L respectively). The study showed only partial removal during the primary treatment whereas both parent compounds and metabolites were efficiently removed during the activated sludge process. In the effluent all analytes were detected in concentrations below 1 µg/L thus showing that either the investigated metabolites do not belong to the NSAID transformation products formed during the activated sludge treatment or they are also quickly further transformed within the treatment.
PubMed ID
24727048 View in PubMed
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Bioelectrochemical anaerobic sewage treatment technology for Arctic communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297771
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32844-32850
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2018
Author
Boris Tartakovsky
Yehuda Kleiner
Michelle-France Manuel
Author Affiliation
National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Ave, Montreal, QC, H4P 2R2, Canada. Boris.Tartakovsky@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32844-32850
Date
Nov-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Anaerobiosis
Biofuels
Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
Bioreactors - microbiology
Carbon - metabolism
Electrochemical Techniques - instrumentation - methods
Electrolysis
Equipment Design
Methane - biosynthesis
Sewage - chemistry
Temperature
Waste Disposal, Fluid - instrumentation - methods
Waste Water - chemistry
Abstract
This study describes a novel wastewater treatment technology suitable for small remote northern communities. The technology is based on an enhanced biodegradation of organic carbon through a combination of anaerobic methanogenic and microbial electrochemical (bioelectrochemical) degradation processes leading to biomethane production. The microbial electrochemical degradation is achieved in a membraneless flow-through bioanode-biocathode setup operating at an applied voltage below the water electrolysis threshold. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests conducted through a broad range of mesophilic and psychrophilic temperatures (5-23 °C) using synthetic wastewater showed a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) removal efficiency of 90-97% and an effluent BOD5 concentration as low as 7 mg L-1. An electricity consumption of 0.6 kWh kg-1 of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removed was observed. Low energy consumption coupled with enhanced methane production led to a net positive energy balance in the bioelectrochemical treatment system.
PubMed ID
28105595 View in PubMed
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Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287467
Source
J Environ Sci (China). 2017 Nov;61:80-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Ulrika Eriksson
Peter Haglund
Anna Kärrman
Source
J Environ Sci (China). 2017 Nov;61:80-90
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis
Caproates - analysis
Caprylates - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Sewage
Sweden
Waste Disposal, Fluid - statistics & numerical data
Waste Water - chemistry - statistics & numerical data
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment.
PubMed ID
29191318 View in PubMed
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Dioxin-like activity in environmental and human samples from Greenland and Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121983
Source
Chemosphere. 2012 Nov;89(8):919-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Manhai Long
Eva C Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Cellular & Molecular Toxicology, Centre of Arctic Health, Department of public Health, Arhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. ml@mil.au.dk
Source
Chemosphere. 2012 Nov;89(8):919-28
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Dioxins - analysis - blood
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Greenland
Humans
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon - agonists - metabolism
Waste Water - chemistry
Abstract
Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds are some of the most toxic chemicals being highly persistent in the environment. The toxicological effects of dioxins are mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Compounds of diverse structure and lipophility can bind and activate AhR. The AhR transactivation bioassay is utilized in an array of projects to study the AhR-mediated activities of individual chemicals and mixtures and for epidemiological purposes. This review summarizes a series of studies regarding the DL-activity of single compounds and complex compound mixtures in the environment and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV degradation of the high potent dioxin and/or the inhibitory effect of the high level of non-DL POPs. Selective bioaccumulation of PCBs in the food chain may contribute to the negative correlation between serum POPs and DL-activity observed in Greenlandic Inuit. Hence the AhR transactivation bioassay provides a cost-effective and integrated screening tool for measurement of the DL-activity in human, environmental and commercial samples.
PubMed ID
22858370 View in PubMed
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38 records – page 1 of 4.