The methane potential and biodegradability of different ratios of acetate and lignin-rich effluents from a neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp mill were investigated. Results showed ultimate methane yields up to 333±5mLCH4/gCOD when only acetate-rich substrate was added and subsequently lower methane potentials of 192±4mLCH4/gCOD when the lignin fraction was increased. The presence of lignin showed a linear decay in methane production, resulting in a 41% decrease in methane when the lignin-rich feed had a 30% increase. A negative linear correlation between lignin content and biodegradability was also observed. Furthermore, the effect of hydrotalcite (HT) addition was evaluated and showed increase in methane potential of up to 8%, a faster production rate and higher soluble lignin removal (7-12% higher). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies between 64 and 83% were obtained for all samples.
In this study, an interval-parameter two-stage mixed integer linear programming (ITMILP) model is developed for supporting long-term planning of waste management activities in the City of Regina. In the ITMILP, both two-stage stochastic programming and interval linear programming are introduced into a general mixed integer linear programming framework. Uncertainties expressed as not only probability density functions but also discrete intervals can be reflected. The model can help tackle the dynamic, interactive and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system in the City, and can address issues concerning plans for cost-effective waste diversion and landfill prolongation. Three scenarios are considered based on different waste management policies. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated. They are valuable for supporting the adjustment or justification of the existing waste flow allocation patterns, the long-term capacity planning of the City's waste management system, and the formulation of local policies and regulations regarding waste generation and management.
Behaviour of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and eight of their metabolites during wastewater treatment studied by hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.
In this work hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was applied for the determination of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen as well as eight of their known human metabolites in wastewater samples. Extraction time and addition of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) to the liquid membrane were evaluated resulting in a method with an optimal extraction time of 5h and 5% (w/V) TOPO addition to the membrane liquid (di-n-hexyl ether). With the optimized method, enrichment factors ranged between 778 and 4830. The method was applied for analysis of samples collected from Källby wastewater treatment plant in the city of Lund, Sweden. Samples were collected from the influent, water entering as well as exiting the conventional activated sludge treatment and the effluent to study the behaviour of these compounds during the treatment process. All twelve substances were found in the influent and for all four drugs, higher concentrations were detected of the metabolites than the parent compounds. Highest concentrations were detected of o-desmethylnaproxen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen and carboxyibuprofen (average influent concentrations of 45, 35 and 63 µg/L respectively). The study showed only partial removal during the primary treatment whereas both parent compounds and metabolites were efficiently removed during the activated sludge process. In the effluent all analytes were detected in concentrations below 1 µg/L thus showing that either the investigated metabolites do not belong to the NSAID transformation products formed during the activated sludge treatment or they are also quickly further transformed within the treatment.
Pharmaceuticals constitute a well-known group of emerging contaminants with an increasing significance in water pollution. This study focuses on three pharmaceuticals extensively used in Finland and which can be found in environmental waters: ibuprofen, diclofenac and carbamazepine. Biodegradation experiments were conducted in a full-scale Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and in laboratory-scale Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs). The SBRs were operated at 12 °C, with a sludge retention time (SRT) 10-12 d and organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.17, 0.27 and 0.33 kg BOD7 m(-3) d(-1). Ibuprofen was found to biodegrade up to 99%. The biodegradation rate constants (k(biol)) for ibuprofen were calculated for full-scale and laboratory processes as well as under different laboratory conditions and found to differ from 0.9 up to 5.0 l g(SS)(-1) d(-1). Diclofenac demonstrated an unexpected immediate drop of concentration in three SBRs and partial recovery of the initial concentration in one of the reactors. High fluctuating in diclofenac concentration was presumably caused by removal of this compound under different concentrations of nitrites during development of nitrifying activated sludge. Carbamazepine showed no biodegradation in all the experiments.
Storage of manure makes a significant contribution to global methane (CH4) emissions. Anaerobic digestion of pig and cattle manure in biogas reactors before outside storage might reduce the potential for CH4 emissions. However, manure pre-stored at 15 to 20 degrees C in buildings before anaerobic digestion may be a significant source of CH4 and could reduce the potential CH4 production in the biogas reactor. Degradation of energy-rich organic components in slurry and emissions of CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) from aerobic and anaerobic degradation processes during pre-storage were examined in the laboratory. Newly mixed slurry was added to vessels and stored at 15 and 20 degrees C for 100 to 220 d. During storage, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured with a dynamic chamber technique. The ratio of decomposition in the subsurface to that at the surface indicated that the aerobic surface processes contributed significantly to CO2 emission. The measured CH4 emission was used to calculate the methane conversion factor (MCF) in relation to storage time and temperature, and the total carbon-C emission was used to calculate the decrease in potential CH4 production by anaerobic digestion following pre-storage. The results show substantial methane and carbon dioxide production from animal manure in an open fed-batch system kept at 15 to 20 degrees C, even for short storage times, but the influence of temperature was not significant at storage times of
The standard of wastewater management is high in Sweden. Around 90% of the population is connected to central wastewater treatment plants with high requirements of nutrients removal; however, still the problem with algae blooms in the Baltic Sea exists. The aim of the VeVa project was to develop a simple and user-friendly Excel-based model to support environmental decisions of how to select wastewater systems for housing areas where no central sewer system exists. The VeVa model deals with two types of environmental issues: substance flow analysis and energy analysis. Six system structures were studied for the transition area Lillängsdal in Värmdö municipality sorted in three categories: 1) on-site systems for single households; 2) local collective systems; 3) connection to central systems. All studied system structures, except for a Sand filter system, fulfilled the goals of reducing phosphorus and BOD7 according to Swedish guidelines for on-site systems in sensitive areas. All studied systems, except for the Sand filter system, have the potential to fulfil the Swedish National Environmental goal to recycle 60% phosphorus to productive land. The systems with central wastewater treatment plant and local wastewater treatment are the most energy efficient alternatives that also fulfil the requirements of discharges and environmental goals regarding phosphorus recycling.
Wastewater disinfection is used in many countries for reducing fecal coliform levels in effluents. Disinfection is therefore frequently used to improve recreational bathing waters which do not comply with microbiological standards. It is unknown whether human enteric viruses (which are responsible for waterborne disease) are simultaneously inactivated alongside fecal coliforms. This laboratory study focused on the chlorination of primary treated effluent with three doses (8, 16, and 30 mg/liter) of free chlorine as sodium hypochlorite. Seeding experiments showed that inactivation (>5 log(10) units) of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis was rapid and complete but that there was poor inactivation (0.2 to 1.0 log(10) unit) of F(+)-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophage (MS2) (a potential virus indicator) at all three doses. However, seeded poliovirus was significantly more susceptible (2.8 log(10) units) to inactivation by chlorine than was the FRNA bacteriophage. To ensure that these results were not artifacts of the seeding process, comparisons were made between inactivation rates of laboratory-seeded organisms in sterilized sewage and inactivation rates of organisms occurring naturally in sewage. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the inactivation rates for seeded and naturally occurring FRNA bacteriophage. However, laboratory-grown poliovirus was inactivated much more rapidly than were naturally occurring, indigenous enteroviruses (P
Cites: J Hyg (Lond). 1984 Aug;93(1):157-636086748
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985 Apr;49(4):981-32988441
We present an investigation on climate change effects on a wastewater treatment system that receive sewage collected in a combined sewer system in Oslo, Norway, during winter operation. Results obtained, by contrasting meteorological data with sewage data, show that wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent flow rates are significantly increased during temporary snow melting periods above a critical daily air mean temperature of approx. -1.5 degrees C degree (T(Crit)) identified in the area. In order to assess melting patterns, the number of days above and below T(Crit) was assessed, and the annual number of melting periods was additionally evaluated using meteorological data obtained in the last decade. A striking thing about the daily air temperature pattern is that, despite the progressively warmer winter temperatures in the last decade, an increasing number of days with temperatures below -1.5 degrees C could be observed. The frequency of melting periods is shown to increase in wintertime, and it is identified as an additional climate change related factor in the Oslo region. We demonstrate that these impacts can deteriorate the WWTP operation through progressively increasing the relative frequencies of very high influent flow rate and of the very low influent sewage temperature. Such climate change related effects on sewage treatment processes can be characterised as shock-conditions, i.e. significant changes in a system's boundary conditions, occurring in a relatively short period of time. In the six year period examined, biological nitrogen removal and secondary clarification processes are shown to be significantly affected by the climate factors. A striking thing about using the state-of-the-art mathematical models of wastewater treatment processes in decision support systems is their inability of describing, and thus predicting the effects of such shock-loading events, as they have not been studied so far. Adaptation and optimisation of process models, also for use in design, optimisation as well as in real-time automation and process control schemes, are thus critical to meet the challenges of climatic changes in the future.
In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy.
Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of resources, such as nutrients and organic matter. At the same time, the organic contaminants (OC) found in sewage sludge are of growing concern. Consequently, in many European countries incineration is currently favored over recycling in agriculture. This study presents a Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT)-based decision support tool (DST) for facilitating sludge treatment decisions. Essential decision criteria were recognized and prioritized, i.e., weighted, by experts from water utilities. Since the fate of organic contaminants was in focus, a simple scoring method was developed to take into account their environmental risks. The final DST assigns each sludge treatment method a preference score expressing its superiority compared to alternative methods. The DST was validated by testing it with data from two Finnish municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The validation results of the first case study preferred sludge pyrolysis (preference score: 0.629) to other alternatives: composting and incineration (score 0.580, and 0.484 respectively). The preference scores were influenced by WWTP dependent factors, i.e., the operating environment and the weighting of the criteria. A lack of data emerged as the main practical limitation. Therefore, not all of the relevant criteria could be included in the value tree. More data are needed on the effects of treatment methods on the availability of nutrients, the quality of organic matter and sludge-borne OCs. Despite these shortcomings, the DST proved useful and adaptable in decision-making. It can also help achieve a more transparent, understandable and comprehensive decision-making process.