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The adequacy of prenatal care and incidence of low birthweight among the poor in Washington State and British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218009
Source
Am J Public Health. 1994 Jun;84(6):986-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1994
Author
S J Katz
R W Armstrong
J P LoGerfo
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Source
Am J Public Health. 1994 Jun;84(6):986-91
Date
Jun-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Maternal Age
Medicaid
National Health Programs
Odds Ratio
Parity
Poverty
Prenatal Care
Quality of Health Care
Risk factors
United States
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in adequacy of prenatal care and incidence of low birthweight between low-income women with Medicaid in Washington State and low-income women with Canadian provincial health insurance in British Columbia.
A population-based cross-sectional study was done by using linked birth certificates and claims data.
Overall, the adjusted odds ratio for inadequate prenatal care in Washington (comparing women with Medicaid with those with private insurance) was 3.2. However, the risk varied by time of Medicaid enrollment relative to pregnancy (2.0, 1.0, 2.7, 6.3; for women who enrolled prior to pregnancy, during the first trimester, during the second trimester, or during the third trimester, respectively). In British Columbia, the adjusted odds ratio for inadequate care (comparing women receiving a health premium subsidy with those receiving no subsidy) was 1.5 for women receiving a 100% subsidy and 1.2 for women receiving a 95% subsidy. The risk for low birthweight followed a similar trend in both regions, but there was no association with enrollment period in Washington.
Overall, the risk for inadequate prenatal care among poor women was much greater in Washington than in British Columbia. Most of the difference was due to Washington women's delayed enrollment in Medicaid. In both regions, the poor were at similar risk for low birthweight relative to their more affluent counterparts.
Notes
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PubMed ID
8203697 View in PubMed
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An international comparison of cancer survival: relatively poor areas of Toronto, Ontario and three US metropolitan areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196630
Source
J Public Health Med. 2000 Sep;22(3):343-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2000
Author
K M Gorey
E J Holowaty
G. Fehringer
E. Laukkanen
N L Richter
C M Meyer
Author Affiliation
School of Social Work, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. gorey@uwindsor.ca
Source
J Public Health Med. 2000 Sep;22(3):343-8
Date
Sep-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Censuses
Cities - epidemiology
Connecticut - epidemiology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Female
Humans
Male
Neoplasms - economics - mortality
Ontario - epidemiology
Poverty Areas
Registries
SEER Program
San Francisco - epidemiology
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Survival Analysis
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
This study of cancer survival compared adults in Toronto, Ontario and three US metropolitan areas: Seattle, Washington; San Francisco, California; and Hartford, Connecticut. It examined whether socioeconomic status has a differential effect on cancer survival in Canada and the United States.
The Ontario Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End
(SEER) programme provided a total of 23,437 and 37,329 population-based primary malignant cancer cases for the Toronto and US samples, respectively (1986-1988, followed until 1994). Census-based measures of socioeconomic status were used to ecologically control absolute income status.
Among residents of low-income areas, persons in Toronto experienced a 5 year survival advantage for 13 of 15 cancer sites [minimally one gender significant at 95 per cent confidence interval (CI)]. An aggregate 35 per cent survival advantage among the Canadian cohort was demonstrated (survival rate ratio (SRR) = 1.35, 95 per cent CI= 1.30-1.40), and this effect was even larger among younger patients not yet eligible for Medicare coverage in the United States (SRR = 1.46, 95 per cent CI = 1.40-1.52).
Systematically replicating a previous Toronto-Detroit comparison, this study's observed consistent pattern of Canadian survival advantage across various cancer sites suggests that their more equitable access to preventive and therapeutic health care services may be responsible for the difference.
PubMed ID
11077908 View in PubMed
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An international outbreak of human salmonellosis associated with animal-derived pet treats--Canada and Washington state, 2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168176
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 2006 Jul 1;32(13):150-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2006

Assessment of periodontal conditions and systemic disease in older subjects. I. Focus on osteoporosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187844
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2002 Sep;29(9):796-802
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2002
Author
R E Persson
L G Hollender
L V Powell
M I MacEntee
C C L Wyatt
H A Kiyak
G R Persson
Author Affiliation
Department of Oral Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA,USA. rper@u.washington.edu
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2002 Sep;29(9):796-802
Date
Sep-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alveolar Bone Loss - complications - ethnology - radiography
Analysis of Variance
British Columbia - epidemiology
Chi-Square Distribution
China - ethnology
Ethnic Groups
Female
Geriatric Assessment
Humans
Male
Mandibular Diseases - complications - ethnology - radiography
Medical History Taking
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Osteoporosis - complications - ethnology - radiography
Periodontitis - complications - ethnology - radiography
Prevalence
ROC Curve
Radiography, Panoramic
Smoking
Statistics, nonparametric
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
Osteoporosis (OPOR) is a common chronic disease, especially in older women. Patients are often unaware of the condition until they experience bone fractures. Studies have suggested that OPOR and periodontitis are associated diseases and exaggerated by cytokine activity. Panoramic radiography (PMX) allows studies of mandibular cortical index (MCI), which is potentially diagnostic for OPOR.
i). To study the prevalence of self-reported history of OPOR in an older, ethnically diverse population, ii). to assess the agreement between PMX/MCI findings and self-reported OPOR, and iii). to assess the likelihood of having both a self-reported history of OPOR and a diagnosis of periodontitis.
PMX and medical history were obtained from 1084 subjects aged 60-75 (mean age 67.6, SD +/- 4.7). Of the films, 90.3% were useful for analysis. PMXs were studied using MCI. The PMXs were used to grade subjects as not having periodontitis or with one of three grades of periodontitis severity.
A positive MCI was found in 38.9% of the subjects, in contrast to 8.2% self-reported OPOR. The intraclass correlation between MCI and self-reported OPOR was 0.20 (P
PubMed ID
12423291 View in PubMed
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Assessment of periodontal conditions and systemic disease in older subjects. II. Focus on cardiovascular diseases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187843
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2002 Sep;29(9):803-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2002
Author
R E Persson
L G Hollender
V L Powell
M. MacEntee
C C L Wyatt
H A Kiyak
G R Persson
Author Affiliation
Department of Oral Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. rper@u.washington.edu
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2002 Sep;29(9):803-10
Date
Sep-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alveolar Bone Loss - complications - epidemiology - radiography
British Columbia - epidemiology
Calcinosis - radiography
Carotid Artery Diseases - complications - epidemiology - radiography
Carotid Artery, Internal - radiography
Chi-Square Distribution
Ethnic Groups
Female
Geriatric Assessment
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Medical History Taking
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - complications - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Periodontitis - complications - epidemiology - radiography
Prevalence
Radiography, Panoramic
Statistics, nonparametric
Stroke - complications - epidemiology
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
Panoramic radiographs (PMX)s may provide information about systemic health conditions.
i). To study clinical periodontal conditions and collect self-reported health status in a cohort of 1084 older subjects; ii). to study signs of alveolar bone loss and carotid calcification from panoramic radiographs obtained from these subjects; and iii). to study associations between study parameters.
PMXs from 1064 adults aged 60-75 (mean age 67.6, SD +/- 4.7) were studied. Signs of alveolar bone loss, vertical defects, and molar furcation radiolucencies defined periodontal status. Medical health histories were obtained via self-reports. Signs of carotid calcification were identified from panoramic radiographs.
The PMX allowed assessment of 53% of the films (Seattle 64.5% and Vancouver 48.4%). A self-reported history of a stroke was reported by 8.1% of men in Seattle and 2.9% of men in Vancouver (P
PubMed ID
12423292 View in PubMed
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Asthma and bronchiolitis hospitalizations among American Indian children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3827
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Oct;154(10):991-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Author
L L Liu
J W Stout
M. Sullivan
D. Solet
D K Shay
D C Grossman
Author Affiliation
Child Health Institute, 146 N Canal St, Suite 300, Seattle, WA 98103-8652, USA.
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Oct;154(10):991-6
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Asthma - epidemiology - ethnology - prevention & control
Bronchiolitis - epidemiology - ethnology - prevention & control
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Medical Record Linkage
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
United States
United States Indian Health Service
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare asthma and bronchiolitis hospitalization rates in American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) children and all children in Washington State. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis using Washington State hospitalization data for 1987 through 1996. Patients were included if asthma or bronchiolitis was the first-listed diagnosis. American Indian and Alaskan native children were identified by linking state hospitalization data with Indian Health Service enrollment data. RESULTS: Similar rates of asthma hospitalization were found for AI/AN children older than 1 year compared with all children. In AI/AN children younger than 1 year, hospitalization rates for asthma (528 per 100,000 population; 95% confidence interval [CI], 346-761) and bronchiolitis (2954 per 100,000 population; 95% CI, 2501-3456) were 2 to 3 times higher than the rates in all children (232 per 100,000 population [95% CI, 215-251] and 1190 per 100,000 population [95% CI, 1149-1232], respectively). Hospitalization rates for asthma and bronchiolitis increased 50% between 1987 and 1996 for all children younger than 1 year and almost doubled for AI/AN children younger than 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: American Indian and Alaskan native children have significantly higher rates of hospitalization for wheezing illnesses during the first year of life compared with children of other age groups and races. Furthermore, the disparities in rates have increased significantly over time. Future public health measures directed at managing asthma and bronchiolitis should target AI/AN infants.
PubMed ID
11030850 View in PubMed
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Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. are broadly susceptible to isolates representing the North American genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278813
Source
J Fish Dis. 2016 Jan;39(1):55-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
G. Kurath
J R Winton
O B Dale
M K Purcell
K. Falk
R A Busch
Source
J Fish Dis. 2016 Jan;39(1):55-67
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
California - epidemiology
Female
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - mortality - virology
Fisheries
Genotype
Idaho - epidemiology
Immunohistochemistry - veterinary
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus - classification - genetics - pathogenicity
Intestines - pathology
Kidney - pathology
Kinetics
Necrosis
Pancreas, Exocrine - pathology
Phylogeny
Rhabdoviridae Infections - epidemiology - veterinary - virology
Salmo salar
Spleen - pathology
Survival Analysis
Virulence
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
Beginning in 1992, three epidemic waves of infectious hematopoietic necrosis, often with high mortality, occurred in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the west coast of North America. We compared the virulence of eleven strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), representing the U, M and L genogroups, in experimental challenges of juvenile Atlantic salmon in freshwater. All strains caused mortality and there was wide variation within genogroups: cumulative mortality for five U-group strains ranged from 20 to 100%, four M-group strains ranged 30-63% and two L-group strains varied from 41 to 81%. Thus, unlike Pacific salmonids, there was no apparent correlation of virulence in a particular host species with virus genogroup. The mortality patterns indicated two different phenotypes in terms of kinetics of disease progression and final per cent mortality, with nine strains having moderate virulence and two strains (from the U and L genogroups) having high virulence. These phenotypes were investigated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to describe the variation in the course of IHNV disease in Atlantic salmon. The results from this study demonstrate that IHNV may become a major threat to farmed Atlantic salmon in other regions of the world where the virus has been, or may be, introduced.
PubMed ID
25381936 View in PubMed
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Birth prevalence study of the Apert syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59635
Source
Am J Med Genet. 1992 Mar 1;42(5):655-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-1992
Author
M M Cohen
S. Kreiborg
E J Lammer
J F Cordero
P. Mastroiacovo
J D Erickson
P. Roeper
M L Martínez-Frías
Author Affiliation
Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
Am J Med Genet. 1992 Mar 1;42(5):655-9
Date
Mar-1-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acrocephalosyndactylia - epidemiology
California - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Georgia - epidemiology
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Italy - epidemiology
Mutation - genetics
Nebraska - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Spain - epidemiology
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
Estimates of the Apert syndrome birth prevalence and the mutation rate are reported for Washington State, Nebraska, Denmark, Italy, Spain, Atlanta, and Northern California. Data were pooled to increase the number of Apert births (n = 57) and produce a more stable birth prevalence estimate. Birth prevalence of the Apert syndrome was calculated to be approximately 15.5/1,000,000 births, which is twice the rate determined in earlier studies. The major reason appears to be incomplete ascertainment in the earlier studies. The similarity of the point estimates and the narrow bounds of the confidence limits in the present study suggest that the birth prevalence of the Apert syndrome over different populations is fairly uniform. The mutation rate was calculated to be 7.8 x 10(-6) per gene per generation. Apert syndrome accounts for about 4.5% of all cases of craniosynostosis. The mortality rate appears to be increased compared to that experienced in the general population; however, further study of the problem is necessary.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Med Genet. 1993 Feb 1;45(3):392-38434630
PubMed ID
1303629 View in PubMed
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Cancer Stage in American Indians and Alaska Natives Enrolled in Medicaid.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289339
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2016 Sep; 51(3):368-72
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
Scott V Adams
Andrea N Burnett-Hartman
Andrew Karnopp
Aasthaa Bansal
Stacey A Cohen
Victoria Warren-Mears
Scott D Ramsey
Author Affiliation
Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address: sadams@fredhutch.org.
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2016 Sep; 51(3):368-72
Date
Sep-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alaska Natives - statistics & numerical data
California - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Male
Medicaid
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Staging
Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Oregon - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Registries
United States
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
Nationally, a greater proportion of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) are diagnosed with advanced-stage cancers compared with non-Hispanic whites. The reasons for observed differences in stage at diagnosis between AI/ANs and non-Hispanic whites remain unclear.
Medicaid, Indian Health Service Care Systems, and state cancer registry data for California, Oregon, and Washington (2001-2008, analyzed in 2014-2015) were linked to identify AI/ANs and non-Hispanic whites diagnosed with invasive breast, cervical, colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer. Logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for distant disease versus local or regional disease, in AI/ANs compared with non-Hispanic white case patients.
A similar proportion of AI/AN (31.2%) and non-Hispanic white (35.5%) patients were diagnosed with distant-stage cancer in this population (AOR=1.03, 95% CI=0.88, 1.20). No significant differences in stage at diagnosis were found for any individual cancer site. Among AI/ANs, Indian Health Service Care Systems eligibility was not associated with stage at diagnosis.
In contrast to the general population of the U.S., among Medicaid enrollees, AI/AN race is not associated with later stage at diagnosis. Cancer survival disparities associated with AI/AN race that have been observed in the broader population may be driven by factors associated with income and health insurance that are also associated with race, as income and insurance status are more homogenous within the Medicaid population than within the broader population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27020318 View in PubMed
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60 records – page 1 of 6.