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Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113392
Source
Health Place. 2013 Sep;23:18-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Rania A Wasfi
Nancy A Ross
Ahmed M El-Geneidy
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A2K6. rania.wasfi@mail.mcgill.ca
Source
Health Place. 2013 Sep;23:18-25
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Quebec
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
Transportation - methods
Urban Population
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs.
PubMed ID
23732403 View in PubMed
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Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274992
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Dec;12(12):15626-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Erik Stigell
Peter Schantz
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Dec;12(12):15626-48
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Transportation - statistics & numerical data
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring-mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 230-390) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26690193 View in PubMed
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Active commuting to and from school among Swedish children--a national and regional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134964
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2012 Apr;22(2):209-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Klara Johansson
Lucie Laflamme
Marie Hasselberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Global Health/IHCAR, Nobels väg 9, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. klara.johansson@ki.se
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2012 Apr;22(2):209-14
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Child
Female
Growth
Health Surveys
Housing
Humans
Male
Motor Skills
Personality Development
Schools
Self Report
Socioeconomic Factors
Students
Sweden - epidemiology
Transportation - statistics & numerical data
Urban Population
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Active commuting to school by walking or cycling can have positive impact on children's health and development. The study investigates the prevalence of active commuting to school in Sweden, a setting where it is facilitated and promoted; and how active commuting varies according to socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics.
Self-reports from a national sample of Swedish children (11- to 15-year-olds, n = 4415) and a regional one from Stockholm County (13-year-olds, n = 1008) on transport to school were compared. The association that active commuting has with socio-demographic (gender, school grade, Swedish origin, type of housing, urbanicity in the local area), and socio-economic characteristics (household socio-economic status, family car ownership) was studied using logistic regression, controlling for car ownership and urbanicity, respectively.
Active commuting was high (62.9% in the national sample) but decreased with age-76% at the age of 11 years, 62% at the age of 13 years and 50% at the age of 15 years-whereas public transport increased (19-43%). Living in an apartment or row-house (compared with detached house) and living in a medium-sized city (compared with a metropolitan area) was associated with active commuting. In urban areas, active commuting was more common in worker households compared with intermediate- to high-level salaried employees.
Active commuting is common but decreases with age. Active commuting differed based on housing and urbanicity but not based on gender or Swedish origin, and impact of socio-economic factors differed depending on level of urbanicity.
PubMed ID
21521708 View in PubMed
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Active transportation as a way to increase physical activity among children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146943
Source
Child Care Health Dev. 2010 May;36(3):421-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
C. Morency
M. Demers
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Montreal, Canada. cmorency@polymtl.ca
Source
Child Care Health Dev. 2010 May;36(3):421-7
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Exercise - physiology
Female
Health Behavior
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Motor Activity - physiology
Transportation - methods - statistics & numerical data
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study examines how active transportation could help increase the daily physical activity volume of school-aged children.
Using data from the 2003 Origin-Destination Survey carried out among 5% of the 3.5 million residents of the Greater Montreal Area, we determined the proportion of short motorized trips made daily by children 5-14 years old (16 837 children sampled) and estimated the number of steps these trips would account for if they were travelled by foot, taking into account variables such as age, sex and height of children. Modal choice and trip purpose were also examined.
In 2003, 31.2% of the daily trips made by children aged 5-14 years in the Greater Montreal Area were 1 km or less (0.6 mile). Of these, 33.0% were motorized trips. Overall, 13.1% of the children in the area had 'steps in reserve', an average of 2238 steps per child per day. If they were performed, these steps would account for 16.6% of the daily recommended volume of physical activity for children.
Replacing short motorized trips with walking could increase the physical activity level of children and contribute to meet the recommended guidelines, as long as these walking trips add to their daily physical activity volume. It could also reduce their dependence towards adults for moving around.
PubMed ID
19961503 View in PubMed
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Active transportation environments surrounding Canadian schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130132
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Sep-Oct;102(5):364-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sean O'Loghlen
J William Pickett
Ian Janssen
Author Affiliation
School of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Sep-Oct;102(5):364-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Humans
Motor Activity
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Transportation - legislation & jurisprudence - methods - statistics & numerical data
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Walking or cycling to school represents an opportunity for children to engage in physical activity. The study objectives were to: 1) describe active transportation policies, programs, and built environments of Canadian schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and 2) document variations based on urban-rural location and school type (primary vs. secondary vs. mixed primary/secondary schools).
397 schools from across Canada were studied. A school administrator completed a questionnaire and responses were used to assess schools' policies and programs related to active transportation and the safety and aesthetics of their respective neighbourhoods. Built environment features in a 1 km-radius circular buffer around each school were measured using geographic information systems.
Greater than 70% of schools had passive policies (e.g., skateboards permitted on school grounds) and facilities (e.g., bicycle racks in secure area to avoid theft) to encourage bicycle and small-wheeled vehicle use. Less than 40% of schools had active programs designed to encourage active transportation, such as organized 'walk to school' days. Garbage in the streets, crime and substance abuse were barriers in most school neighbourhoods. Approximately 42% of schools were located on high-speed roads not amenable to active transportation and 14% did not have a sidewalk leading to the school. Secondary schools had less favourable active transportation policies/programs and neighbourhood safety/aesthetics compared to primary schools. Rural schools had less favourable built environments than urban schools.
Canadian children, particularly those from rural areas, face a number of impediments to active transportation as a method of travelling to school.
PubMed ID
22032103 View in PubMed
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Along the boardwalk: effects of a boardwalk on walking behaviour within a Nova Scotia community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207123
Source
Can J Public Health. 1997 Sep-Oct;88(5):325-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
C. Mangham
P W Viscount
Author Affiliation
School of Recreation, Physical, and Health Education, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1997 Sep-Oct;88(5):325-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Focus Groups
Health Behavior
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nova Scotia
Questionnaires
Walking - statistics & numerical data
PubMed ID
9401167 View in PubMed
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An international study of the exposure of children to traffic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34249
Source
Inj Prev. 1997 Jun;3(2):89-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997
Author
I. Roberts
J. Carlin
C. Bennett
E. Bergstrom
B. Guyer
T. Nolan
R. Norton
I B Pless
R. Rao
M. Stevenson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Child Health, University of London, UK.
Source
Inj Prev. 1997 Jun;3(2):89-93
Date
Jun-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Australia
Automobiles - statistics & numerical data
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Child
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Data Collection
Female
Humans
International Cooperation
Male
New Zealand
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sampling Studies
Sweden
Transportation - methods
United States
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent of international differences in children's exposure to traffic as pedestrians or bicyclists. DESIGN: Children's travel patterns were surveyed using a parent-child administered questionnaire. Children were sampled via primary schools, using a probability cluster sampling design. SETTING: Six cities in five countries: Melbourne and Perth (Australia), Montreal (Canada), Auckland (New Zealand), Umeå (Sweden), and Baltimore (USA). SUBJECTS: Children aged 6 and 9 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Modes of travel on the school-home journey, total daily time spent walking, and the average daily number of roads crossed. MAIN FINDINGS: Responses were obtained from the parents of 13423 children. There are distinct patterns of children's travel in the six cities studied. Children's travel in the three Australasian cities, Melbourne, Perth and Auckland, is characterised by high car use, low levels of bicycling, and a steep decline in walking with increasing car ownership. In these cities, over a third of the children sampled spent less than five minutes walking per day. In Montreal, walking and public transport were the most common modes of travel. In Umeå, walking and bicycling predominated, with very low use of motorised transport. In comparison with children in the Australasian and North American cities, children in Umeå spend more time walking, with 87% of children walking for more than five minutes per day. CONCLUSIONS: There are large international differences in the extent to which children walk and cycle. These findings would suggest that differences in 'exposure to risk' may be an important contributor to international differences in pedestrian injury rates. There are also substantial differences in pedestrian exposure to risk by levels of car ownership-differences that may explain socioeconomic differentials in pedestrian injury rates.
PubMed ID
9213152 View in PubMed
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The association between access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264809
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Dec;11(12):12632-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Sune Djurhuus
Henning S Hansen
Mette Aadahl
Charlotte Glümer
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Dec;11(12):12632-51
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Denmark
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Questionnaires
Self Report
Socioeconomic Factors
Transportation - statistics & numerical data
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Workplace
Young Adult
Abstract
Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25489998 View in PubMed
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Associations between active travel and weight, blood pressure and diabetes in six middle income countries: a cross-sectional study in older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271537
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:65
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Anthony A Laverty
Raffaele Palladino
John Tayu Lee
Christopher Millett
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:65
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Blood Pressure - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
China - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Female
Ghana - epidemiology
Humans
India - epidemiology
Male
Mexico - epidemiology
Motor Activity - physiology
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Self Report
Socioeconomic Factors
South Africa - epidemiology
Transportation - methods
Travel - statistics & numerical data
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
There is little published data on the potential health benefits of active travel in low and middle-income countries. This is despite increasing levels of adiposity being linked to increases in physical inactivity and non-communicable diseases. This study will examine: (1) socio-demographic correlates of using active travel (walking or cycling for transport) among older adults in six populous middle-income countries (2) whether use of active travel is associated with adiposity, systolic blood pressure and self-reported diabetes in these countries.
Data are from the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) of China, India, Mexico, Ghana, Russia and South Africa with a total sample size of 40,477. Correlates of active travel (=150 min/week) were examined using logistic regression. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine health related outcomes according to three groups of active travel use per week.
46.4% of the sample undertook =150 min of active travel per week (range South Africa: 21.9% Ghana: 57.8%). In pooled analyses those in wealthier households were less likely to meet this level of active travel (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) 0.77, 95% Confidence Intervals 0.67; 0.88 wealthiest fifth vs. poorest). Older people and women were also less likely to use active travel for =150 min per week (ARR 0.71, 0.62; 0.80 those aged 70+ years vs. 18-29 years old, ARR 0.82, 0.74; 0.91 women vs. men). In pooled fully adjusted analyses, high use of active travel was associated with lower risk of overweight (ARR 0.71, 0.59; 0.86), high waist-to-hip ratio (ARR 0.71, 0.61; 0.84) and lower BMI (-0.54 kg/m(2), -0.98;- 0.11). Moderate (31-209 min/week) and high use (=210 min/week) of active travel was associated with lower waist circumference (-1.52 cm (-2.40; -0.65) and -2.16 cm (3.07; -1.26)), and lower systolic blood pressure (-1.63 mm/Hg (-3.19; -0.06) and -2.33 mm/Hg (-3.98; -0.69)).
In middle-income countries use of active travel for =150 min per week is more common in lower socio-economic groups and appears to confer similar health benefits to those identified in high-income settings. Efforts to increase active travel levels should be integral to strategies to maintain healthy weight and reduce disease burden in these settings.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25986001 View in PubMed
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Children's exposure to traffic and pedestrian injuries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203727
Source
Am J Public Health. 1998 Dec;88(12):1840-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
A. Macpherson
I. Roberts
I B Pless
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Am J Public Health. 1998 Dec;88(12):1840-3
Date
Dec-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Age Distribution
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Quebec
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban health
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Wounds and Injuries - etiology - prevention & control
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to estimate children's exposure to traffic (number of streets crossed) and to determine the role of exposure in pedestrian injury.
Questionnaires were distributed to a random sample of 4080 first- and fourth-grade children in 43 Montreal schools.
When analyzed by police district, injury and exposure rates were positively correlated (r2 = 0.53). Crossings were similar by sex but increased with age and were inversely related to socioeconomic status.
These results suggest that although children's exposure to traffic could be reduced by transporting them to school, a more reasonable prevention strategy involves environmental changes.
Notes
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Comment In: Am J Public Health. 1998 Dec;88(12):1759-609842370
PubMed ID
9842384 View in PubMed
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53 records – page 1 of 6.