Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11-15 years (n=20?076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine associations between walking or bicycling to school and related injury. Regular active transportation to school at larger distances (approximately >1.6 km; 1.0 miles) was associated with higher relative odds of active transportation injury (OR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.15), with a suggestion of a dose-response relationship between longer travel distances and injury (p=0.02). Physical activity interventions for youth should encourage participation in active transportation to school, while also recognising the potential for unintentional injury.
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2005 Feb;28(2 Suppl 2):134-4015694521
A case of acute anteriolateral compartmental syndrome in an 18-year old male conscript, caused by moderate physical strain is reported. It is questioned, with reference to literature, whether elevation and observation of mild cases is appropriate treatment.
Causes of pedestrian accidents (N = 534) were investigated for patients treated for injuries at the emergency unit of a hospital. Accidents in collisions with motor vehicles were the main cause (87.8%). Young children (0-9 years old) and the elderly (above 60 years of age) are the most vulnerable in terms of mortality rates observed in these age groups. Preponderance of males in pedestrian accidents was observed in the accident categories of collisions with motor vehicle and bicycle, whereas a slight preponderance of females was found in collisions with other traffic. The predominant age groups were located in the range from 0 through 19 years.
The study was based on data concerning persons treated at Odense University Hospital as a result of road traffic accidents in the period 1980-92. Incidence rates of road traffic accident injuries were calculated on the basis of the population in Odense municipality. The study group included persons older or even 65 years of age, while persons younger than 65 years of age were used as a reference group.
The purpose of this research was to determine whether modifying school start time schedules can be used to reduce children's exposure to traffic on their morning walks to school.
We use models of pedestrian and motor vehicle commuting to estimate the frequency of encounters between child pedestrians and motor vehicles at intersections throughout the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. We use a simple heuristic to identify the school-specific start times that would most reduce the local frequency of encounters between motor vehicles and pedestrians.
Our analysis suggests that it may be possible to achieve an almost 15 percent reduction in the total number of encounters between child pedestrians and motor vehicles during the morning commute by staggering school start times such that the periods of high pedestrian activity are temporally staggered from periods of high motor vehicle activity. Our analysis suggests that small changes in school start times could be sufficient to see noteworthy reductions in pedestrian exposure to traffic.
Changing school times may be an effective, inexpensive, and practical tool for reducing child pedestrian injuries in urban environments. Enhanced transportation models and community-based interventions are natural next steps for exploring the use of school-specific scheduling to reduce the risk of child pedestrian injury. Further research is required to validate our models before this analysis should be used by policy makers.
To analyse the relationships between factors related to school location and motor vehicle versus child pedestrian collisions.
Data on all police-reported motor vehicle collisions involving pedestrians less than 18 years of age that occurred in Toronto, Canada, between 2000 and 2005 were analysed. Geographic information systems (GIS) software was used to assess the distance of each collision relative to school location. The relationships between distance from school and collision-related factors such as temporal patterns of school travel times and crossing locations were analysed.
Study data showed a total of 2717 motor vehicle versus child (
Pedestrian and cyclist collisions comprise a significant proportion of preventable injury. In urban settings, collision rates have been linked to various socio-demographic factors. We sought to determine whether neighbourhood marginalization affects pedestrian and cyclist collisions in the Greater Toronto Area.
For 114 intersections, pedestrian and cyclist collisions were extracted from the Toronto Traffic Data Centre database. We used a geographic information system approach to determine census Dissemination Areas and an associated Ontario Marginalization Index (ON-Marg) for each intersection. We performed a logistic regression to examine the associations between the four ON-Marg dimensions (residential instability, material deprivation, dependency, ethnic concentration) and pedestrian and cyclist collisions.
The odds of sustaining a collision were independently associated with residential instability for both pedestrians (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.21-2.84, p=0.006) and cyclists (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.34-3.16, p=0.001). Higher overall collision rates (both pedestrian and cyclist) were associated with both ethnic concentration (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.37, p=0.033) and residential instability (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.43-3.38, p=0.001). Material deprivation and dependency were not significant risk factors for intersection collisions in this model.
Collisions involving pedestrians and cyclists are more common in areas of increased residential instability and ethnic concentration in Toronto. Intersections in neighbourhoods with these characteristics could be targeted for strategies to reduce pedestrian and cyclist injury risk in urban settings.
Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide.
This study was designed to evaluate the potential safety importance of the walking direction along a road by examining pedestrian accidents as a function of exposure to risk. The study was limited to rural two-lane roads with no pavement or pedestrian lane. The accident data included police-reported road accidents from Finland between 2006 and 2010 in which a motorized vehicle had struck a pedestrian walking along the road. There were 18 accidents involving a fatally injured pedestrian and 87 accidents involving a non-fatally injured pedestrian. The exposure data collected from the roughly 3400km included 258 pedestrians. The main finding was that the mean effect of facing traffic compared to walking with traffic was a 77% decrease in fatal and in non-fatal injury pedestrian accidents. The results further showed that the effects were greater for main roads than for secondary roads. The main implication of this study is that information about the importance of facing traffic should be reinforced with specific information about its substantial safety benefits.
Road crashes not only claim lives and inflict injuries but also create an economic burden to the society due to loss of productivity. Although numerous studies have been conducted to examine a multitude of factors contributing to the frequency and severity of crashes, very few studies have examined the influence of street pattern at a community level. This study examined the effect of different street patterns on crash severity using the City of Calgary as a case study. In this study, street pattern is classified into four categories: grid-iron, warped parallel, loops and lollipops, and mixed patterns. Their effects on injury risk are examined together with other factors including road features, drivers' characteristics, crash characteristics, environmental conditions and vehicle attributes. Pedestrian and bicycle crash data for the years 2003-2005 were utilized to develop a multinomial logit model of crash severity. Our results showed that compared to other street patterns, loops and lollipops design increases the probability of an injury but reduces the probability of fatality and property-damage-only in an event of a crash.