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1951 influenza epidemic, England and Wales, Canada, and the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169257
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;12(4):661-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Cécile Viboud
Theresa Tam
Douglas Fleming
Mark A Miller
Lone Simonsen
Author Affiliation
National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. viboudc@mail.nih.gov
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;12(4):661-8
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks - history
England - epidemiology
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - history
Middle Aged
Seasons
United States - epidemiology
Wales - epidemiology
Abstract
Influenza poses a continuing public health threat in epidemic and pandemic seasons. The 1951 influenza epidemic (A/H1N1) caused an unusually high death toll in England; in particular, weekly deaths in Liverpool even surpassed those of the 1918 pandemic. We further quantified the death rate of the 1951 epidemic in 3 countries. In England and Canada, we found that excess death rates from pneumonia and influenza and all causes were substantially higher for the 1951 epidemic than for the 1957 and 1968 pandemics (by > or =50%). The age-specific pattern of deaths in 1951 was consistent with that of other interpandemic seasons; no age shift to younger age groups, reminiscent of pandemics, occurred in the death rate. In contrast to England and Canada, the 1951 epidemic was not particularly severe in the United States. Why this epidemic was so severe in some areas but not others remains unknown and highlights major gaps in our understanding of interpandemic influenza.
Notes
Cites: Vaccine. 1999 Jul 30;17 Suppl 1:S3-1010471173
Cites: J Infect Dis. 2005 Jul 15;192(2):233-4815962218
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Cites: Nature. 2004 Dec 16;432(7019):904-615602562
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2005 Feb 14;165(3):265-7215710788
Cites: Epidemiol Infect. 2005 Apr;133(2):255-6215816150
Cites: Br Med J. 1951 Oct 20;2(4737):921-714869766
PubMed ID
16704816 View in PubMed
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Acceptability of the controlled-drinking goal among alcohol treatment agencies in New South Wales, Australia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11060
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 1997 May;58(3):253-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1997
Author
M. Donovan
N. Heather
Author Affiliation
Waverley Drug and Alcohol Centre, Bondi Junction, NSW, Australia.
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 1997 May;58(3):253-6
Date
May-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - psychology
Alcoholism - rehabilitation
Attitude of Health Personnel
Comparative Study
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Humans
New South Wales
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: A survey was conducted to estimate the acceptability of the controlled drinking goal among treatment services in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and to compare results with similar surveys carried out elsewhere. METHOD: Of all identified alcohol treatment services (N = 295) in NSW, 179 (61%) responded to a mailed questionnaire with useable returns. RESULTS: Nearly three-quarters of respondents endorsed controlled drinking but half of these reported allocating less than 25% of their clients to this goal. Community-based services and alcohol treatment units were significantly more likely to endorse controlled drinking than were residential or private facilities. Community-based services and alcohol treatment units were also more likely to base the appropriateness of controlled drinking on professional experience and research evidence, whereas residential and private facilities relied more on the disease model or agency policy in making this determination. Respondents with tertiary qualifications were more likely to endorse controlled drinking than those without such qualifications, and these respondents were more likely to be found in community-based services and alcohol treatment units. CONCLUSIONS: The results show widespread support for the controlled drinking goal among NSW alcohol treatment services. This is similar to the reported status of controlled drinking in Britain and Norway and stands in marked contrast to the comparative reluctance of treatment services in North America to endorse the controlled drinking goal.
PubMed ID
9130216 View in PubMed
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Acute sports injuries. Way in which sports are played is important factor in injury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature212348
Source
BMJ. 1996 Mar 30;312(7034):844
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-30-1996
Author
J. Nicholl
P. Coleman
Source
BMJ. 1996 Mar 30;312(7034):844
Date
Mar-30-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Athletic Injuries - etiology
England - epidemiology
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Wales - epidemiology
Notes
Cites: BMJ. 1995 Dec 2;311(7018):1465-88520333
Cites: Br J Sports Med. 1991 Mar;25(1):61-61913036
Comment On: BMJ. 1995 Dec 2;311(7018):1465-88520333
PubMed ID
8608301 View in PubMed
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Adolescent experience predicts longevity: evidence from historical epidemiology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260065
Source
J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2014 Jun;5(3):171-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
A. Falconi
A. Gemmill
R E Dahl
R. Catalano
Source
J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2014 Jun;5(3):171-7
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Development - physiology
Cohort Studies
England - epidemiology
Female
Forecasting
France - epidemiology
Humans
Life Expectancy - trends
Longevity - physiology
Male
Sweden - epidemiology
Wales - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Human development reportedly includes critical and sensitive periods during which environmental stressors can affect traits that persist throughout life. Controversy remains over which of these periods provides an opportunity for such stressors to affect health and longevity. The elaboration of reproductive biology and its behavioral sequelae during adolescence suggests such a sensitive period, particularly among males. We test the hypothesis that life expectancy at age 20 among males exposed to life-threatening stressors during early adolescence will fall below that among other males. We apply time-series methods to cohort mortality data in France between 1816 and 1919, England and Wales between 1841 and 1919, and Sweden between 1861 and 1919. Our results indicate an inverse association between cohort death rates at ages 10-14 and cohort life expectancy at age 20. Our findings imply that better-informed and more strategic management of the stressors encountered by early adolescents may improve population health.
PubMed ID
24901655 View in PubMed
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Adolescent reproductive behavior: an international comparison of developed countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65231
Source
Adv Adolesc Mental Health. 1990;4:13-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
J D Forrest
Source
Adv Adolesc Mental Health. 1990;4:13-34
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced
Adolescent
Age Factors
Americas
Attitude
Behavior
Birth rate
Canada
Communication
Comparative Study
Contraception
Contraception Behavior
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Demography
Developed Countries
Education
England
Europe
Family Characteristics
Family Planning Services
Family Relations
Fertility
France
Great Britain
Health Services Accessibility
Mass Media
Methods
Netherlands
North America
Organization and Administration
Parents
Population
Population Characteristics
Population Dynamics
Pregnancy
Pregnancy in adolescence
Program Evaluation
Psychology
Research
Scandinavia
Sex Education
Sexual Behavior
Sweden
Wales
Abstract
A comparative study of adolescent reproductive behavior in the 1980s examined difference in pregnancy, birth, and abortion levels among teenagers in developed countries especially in the US, Canada, the UK, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Only 6 of 37 countries with total fertility rates 3.5 and per capita income US$2000/year, and at least 1 million people had adolescent birth rates higher than the US (Bulgaria, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Romania, Hungary, and Chile). The US had the highest abortion rate (42/1000) followed by Hungary (27/1000). Thus the US had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate (96/1000) as well as Hungary (96/1000). The 6 country analysis showed that reducing the level of sexual activity among teenagers is not necessarily needed to achieve lower pregnancy rates. For example, Sweden had the highest levels of sexual activity but its pregnancy rate were 33% as high as those of the US. The rates of sexual activity among teenagers in the Netherlands equaled those of the US, but its pregnancy rates were 14% as high as those of the US. All countries had earlier, more extensive, and better contraceptive use among sexually active teenagers than the US which accounted for their lower pregnancy rates. The more realistic acceptance of sexual activity among teenagers and provision of contraceptives in all the countries except the US differed from the societal ambivalence in the US. Thus ambivalence about sexuality and the appropriateness of contraceptive use results in lower contraceptive use and greater adolescent pregnancy rates. US adolescents constantly receive conflicting messages that sex is romantic, thrilling, and arousing but it is also immoral to have premarital sex. Thus adults need to be more candid about sexuality so they can clearly convey to adolescents their expectations for responsible behavior and to provide the information and services needed to make effective use of contraceptives when sexually active.
PubMed ID
12317626 View in PubMed
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Adolescent smoking and family structure in Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31283
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jan;56(1):41-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
Dawn Griesbach
Amanda Amos
Candace Currie
Author Affiliation
Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit (CAHRU), Department of PE, Sport and Leisure Studies, University of Edinburgh, St. Leonard's Land, Holyrood Road, EH8 8AQ, Edinburgh, UK. dawn.griesbach@isd.csa.scot.nhs.uk
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jan;56(1):41-52
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - ethnology - psychology
Austria - epidemiology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Denmark - epidemiology
Europe - epidemiology
Family - ethnology
Finland - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Health Behavior - ethnology
Humans
Income
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Scotland - epidemiology
Smoking - ethnology
Social Change
Social Class
Wales - epidemiology
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between family structure and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in seven European countries. It also investigates the association between family structure and a number of known smoking risk factors including family socio-economic status, the adolescent's disposable income, parental smoking and the presence of other smokers in the adolescent's home. Findings are based on 1998 survey data from a cross-national study of health behaviours among children and adolescents. Family structure was found to be significantly associated with smoking among 15-year-olds in all countries, with smoking prevalence lowest among adolescents in intact families and highest among adolescents in stepfamilies. Multivariate analysis showed that several risk factors were associated with higher smoking prevalences in all countries, but that even after these other factors were taken into account, there was an increased likelihood of smoking among adolescents in stepfamilies. Further research is needed to determine the possible reasons for this association.
PubMed ID
12435550 View in PubMed
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Aerobic fitness and body fat of young British males entering the army.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature68108
Source
Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1979 Jan 10;40(2):73-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-10-1979
Author
J A Vogel
J P Crowdy
Source
Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1979 Jan 10;40(2):73-83
Date
Jan-10-1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Adolescent
Adult
England
Humans
Male
Military Medicine
Northern Ireland
Oxygen consumption
Physical Fitness
Scotland
Sports Medicine
Wales
Abstract
Aerobic fitness and percent body fat were measured in a sample of 438 male Army recruits between the ages of 17 and 30 prior to the commencement of training. The sample came from all areas of England and Wales. Aerobic fitness, as represented by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), was predicted from the Astrand submaximal bicycle heart rate test. Body fat was predicted from four skinfold measurements. Total group means +/- SD were: age, 19.5 +/- 2.5 years; VO2 max 41.7 +/- 8.3 ml/kg . min; and body fat, 14.5 +/- 4.8% of body weight. VO2 max varied with age, athletic participation and aptitude score. No relationship was found with occupation of parent, prior civilian occupation or smoking severity. When adjusted for methodological differences, VO2 max was slightly below similar Army entrants in Norway and the United States.
PubMed ID
428371 View in PubMed
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Aetiology of hyperthyroidism in Canada and Wales.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature241590
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1983 Sep;37(3):245-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1983
Author
I. Williams
V O Ankrett
J H Lazarus
R. Volpe
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1983 Sep;37(3):245-8
Date
Sep-1983
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenoma - complications
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Female
Goiter, Nodular - complications
Graves Disease - complications
Humans
Hyperthyroidism - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Thyroid Neoplasms - complications
Thyroiditis - complications
Wales
Abstract
A retrospective, comparative review of 100 consecutive new outpatients presenting with hyperthyroidism in Cardiff, South Wales, and in Toronto, Canada, was performed. The aim was to quantify the causes of hyperthyroidism with particular emphasis on the prevalence of viral thyroiditis and "silent" thyroiditis. The proportional morbidity of Graves' disease (approximately 70%) was similar in the two groups. Toxic multinodular goitre and toxic adenoma (Plummers' disease) occurred significantly more frequently in Cardiff (25% v 8%), whereas thyroiditis predominated in Toronto (17% v 1%).
Notes
Cites: Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1967 Apr;54(4):604-84164539
Cites: Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1960 Mar;33:457-7214413579
Cites: Mayo Clin Proc. 1972 Nov;47(11):814-234678499
Cites: Lancet. 1974 Aug 24;2(7878):427-314137321
Cites: Lancet. 1975 Feb 15;1(7903):361-346512
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1975 Sep 25;293(13):624-81173935
Cites: Am J Med. 1976 Jan;60(1):73-956130
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1977 Jan;86(1):24-8576376
Cites: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1977 Dec;7(6):481-93598014
Cites: JAMA. 1978 Feb 20;239(8):742-4579637
Cites: Am J Med. 1978 Aug;65(2):227-34686008
Cites: Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979 Mar;8(1):81-95371876
Cites: Calif Med. 1952 Feb;76(2):66-814905284
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1957 Oct;17(10):1202-2113475461
Cites: AMA Arch Intern Med. 1958 Nov;102(5):747-6013582261
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1962 Jan;56:68-7113918789
Cites: Mayo Clin Proc. 1970 Sep;45(9):636-445469087
PubMed ID
6688631 View in PubMed
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Age distribution of patients with Parkinsonism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature251376
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 1976 Feb;24(2):79-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1976
Author
M M Hoehn
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 1976 Feb;24(2):79-85
Date
Feb-1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Canada
England
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Middle Aged
Parkinson Disease - epidemiology - history
Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic - epidemiology - history
United States
Wales
Abstract
The modal age at onset of the parkinsonian syndrome during the past thrity years is less than a decade higher than it was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, suggesting that the same disease entity is affecting parkinsonian patients now as then. The evidence points to the existence of two distinct clinical entities: 1) parkinsonism secondary to encephalitis lethargica, which had its greatest influence on the epidemiology of parkinsonism between 1920 and 1945; and 2) classic parkinsonism, which has undergone little change in the past hundred years.
PubMed ID
765387 View in PubMed
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Among the Eskimos of Wales, Alaska 1890-93.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2468
Source
Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD. 235 pp.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
1931
Author
Thornton, H.R.
Source
Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD. 235 pp.
Date
1931
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Wales
Epidemics
Respiratory diseases
Epistaxis
Stature
Frostbite
Pediculosis
Violence
Homicide
Shaman
Fertility
Traditional healing
Hypothermia
Drowning
Infanticide
Gunshot wounds
Elderly, care of
Disabled, care of
Blindness
Childbirth
Labor
Midwife
Notes
Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 396.
UAA/APU Consortium, Alaskana Collection E99 E7 T52 1931
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280 records – page 1 of 28.