OBJECTIVE: To investigate determinants of the acceptability of isoflavone products among postmenopausal women with regard to social and lifestyle factors, dietary habits, health concerns, food beliefs, menopausal symptoms and therapies, and to elucidate preferences for specific products. METHODS: A consumer survey was conducted among postmenopausal women in four European countries (Germany, Denmark, Italy and the UK), including a total of 465 respondents. RESULTS: The declared acceptability of isoflavones was highest in Germany (80%), followed by Italy (75%), the UK (59%) and Denmark (55%; p
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main reason for blindness today in the western hemisphere. According to BjÃ¶rn Olafsson, who was the first ophthalmologist in Iceland a century ago, this disease was not found in Iceland. In the blindness-registry of 1950 6% blindness was due to this disease. Today, AMD is responsible for 54% of legal blindness in Iceland. The incidence of the disease increases with age. Heredity and environmental factors are thought to influence its etiology. Indirect methods, including twin studies and increased frequency of this disease in some families, have demonstrated that hereditary factors may be important. This has been confirmed recently by demonstrating that genes on chromosome 1 and chromosome10 play a role. This disease is classified as early stage, with drusen and pigmentary changes and insignificant visual loss. Treatment options for this stage are limited. The use of vitamin E and C and Zinc has, however, been shown to delay its progress. The second and end stage involves visual loss, either as a dry form with pigment epithelial atrophy or wet form, with new vessel formation. Treatment options for the dry form are limited. The second form is more common in Iceland than in other countries. Treatment options for the wet form have increased. Localised laser and drug treatment to neovascular membranes, either alone or as a combination treatment with drugs that have anti-proliferate effect on new vessels (anti-VEGF) are increasingly used. New treatment methods are also used in assisting those that are already visually handicapped. The use of computers is increasing as are the patients' computer skills. As the number of the elderly increases, AMD will be an increasing health problem in Iceland as in other Western countries. It is therefore important to improve the treatment options and the service and counselling of patients.
Dietary intake of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) may be associated with superior response to antirheumatic treatments. In addition, dietary folate intake may be associated with worse response to methotrexate (MTX). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary vitamin D, omega-3 FA, folate and treatment results of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
This prospective study was based on data from the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) study, and included 727 patients with early RA from 10 hospitals in Sweden. Data on dietary vitamin D, omega-3 FA and folate intake based on food frequency questionnaires were linked with data on European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response after 3?months of DMARD treatment. Associations between vitamin D, omega-3 FA, folate and EULAR response were analysed with logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.
The majority of patients (89.9%) were initially treated with MTX monotherapy and more than half (56.9%) with glucocorticoids. Vitamin D and omega-3 FA were associated with good EULAR response (OR 1.80 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.83) and OR 1.60 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.53), respectively). Folate was not significantly associated with EULAR response (OR 1.20 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.91)). Similar results were seen in a subgroup of patients who were initially treated with MTX monotherapy at baseline.
Higher intake of dietary vitamin D and omega-3 FA during the year preceding DMARD initiation may be associated with better treatment results in patients with early RA. Dietary folate intake was not associated with worse or better response to treatment, especially to MTX. Our results suggest that some nutrients may be associated with enhanced treatment results of DMARDs.
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In 2007, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) introduced new guidelines on periconceptional folic acid supplementation.
To evaluate the concordance between the SOGC guidelines and actual vitamin/folic acid supplementation, and to identify maternal determinants of concordant folic acid use.MethodsFrom May to July 2010, pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic at CHU Ste-Justine in Montreal were surveyed to assess use of folic acid. Data on socio-demographic factors, lifestyles, family and personal medical history, and periconceptional folic acid supplementation were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire. Concordance between maternal reported intake of folic acid and SOGC guidelines was estimated accounting for pregnancy history, comorbidities, and lifestyles.
A total of 361 eligible women gave informed consent; of these, 97 (27%) had periconceptional folic acid supplementation intake that was concordant with guidelines. Women with no personal history of neural tube defects (NTDs) were the most concordant with guidelines (36%), followed by women with a previous child with NTD (26%), and women with health risk factors for NTDs (18%). Women who smoked and drank alcohol had the lowest concordance with guidelines (4%). Women with planned pregnancies and higher income were more likely to be concordant with guidelines; whereas, smokers, alcohol and recreational drug user and women with health risk for NTDs were less likely to be concordant.
Concordance with clinical guidelines was low, even for women with a history of NTDs. Our findings highlight the need for public health programs to inform women to consume folic acid every day before and during pregnancy.
The study examines the relation of diet and vitamin or mineral supplementation with risk of rectal cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1 380 newly diagnosed patients with histologically confirmed rectal cancer and 3 097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurement included information on socio-economic status, lifestyle, diet and vitamin or mineral supplementation. We derived odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals through unconditional logistic regression. Total of consumption of vegetables, fruit and whole-grain products did not reduce the risk of rectal cancer. Consumption of cruciferous vegetables was inversely associated with risk of rectal cancer among women only, as did chicken intake among men. The strongest dietary association with increased rectal cancer risk appeared in males with increasing total fat intake and in females with bacon intake. Vitamin and mineral supplementation showed significant inverse associations with rectal cancer in women only. These findings suggest that dietary risk factors for rectal cancer in women may differ from those in men.
The relationship of major dietary carotenoids, preformed and total vitamin A, and different foods to serum beta-carotene and serum retinol levels was studied among 224 male and 117 female adults taken from the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey. Serum nutrients were analysed after 10-15 years of storage at -20 degrees C. Dietary data were collected by a quantitative dietary history interview method. Intakes of nutrients were calculated based on analysed data on Finnish foods. The positive gradient between beta-carotene intake and serum level, being highly significant in women and non-significant in men, was concentrated in non-smokers. Other major dietary carotenoids tended to be positively correlated with serum beta-carotene in parallel with dietary beta-carotene. Carrot intake was the most specific single food predictor for serum beta-carotene. Serum retinol levels were not significantly associated with dietary variables and were not affected by current smoking. In women, serum beta-carotene values were higher, but serum retinol levels lower, compared with men. The results support earlier findings that smoking modifies the association between dietary beta-carotene and serum beta-carotene, and suggest that despite the long storage of serum samples beta-carotene determinations had some value as a biological marker for beta-carotene in the diet.
A case-control study of diet and stomach cancer was conducted during 1979-1982 in Toronto, Winnipeg, and St. John's Canada. Two hundred forty-six histologically verified cancer cases were individually matched by age, sex, and area of residence to 246 randomly selected population controls. Daily nutrient consumption values were calculated from quantitative diet history questionnaire data through use of the US Department of Agriculture Food Composition Data Bank, which was extended and modified for Canadian items. For the analysis, continuous conditional logistic regression methods were used. It was found that consumption of dietary fiber was associated with decreased risk of gastric cancer; the odds ratio estimate of trend was 0.40/10 g average daily intake of fiber (i.e., 0.40(1.5)/15 g, etc.) (p less than 10(-8)). Also, average daily consumption of nitrite, chocolate, and carbohydrate was associated with increasing trends in risk, with odds ratio estimates, respectively, 2.6/mg (p less than 10(-4)), 1.8/10 g (p less than 10(-4)), and 1.5/100 g (p = 0.015). While citrus fruit intake appeared to be somewhat protective (odds ratio = 0.75/100 g daily average, p = 0.0056), vitamin C intake was less so, and vitamin E not at all. Thus, a number of dietary components seem to be implicated in the pathogenesis of stomach cancer.