OBJECTIVE: To determine vitamin D levels among children 6 to 23 months old receiving services from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) programs in Alaska.Study design During 2001 and 2002, we recruited 133 children receiving services at seven WIC clinics, administered a risk factor questionnaire, and collected blood. RESULTS: Fifteen (11%) and 26 (20%) children, respectively, had vitamin D levels or =25 ng/mL. Among 41 still breast-feeding children, 14 (34%) took supplemental vitamins, and six (18%) were reported to have received vitamins every day. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Alaska. Breast-feeding in the absence of adequate vitamin D supplementation is the greatest risk factor.
There is disturbing evidence of widespread vitamin D deficiency in many population groups, particularly within nations at high latitude. Numerous recent studies in the scientific literature associate vitamin D deficiency with a colossal increase in morbidity and mortality. Since Canada is at higher latitude, this review assesses the vitamin D status within the Canadian population. This review was prepared by assessing available medical and scientific literature from Medline, as well as by reviewing several books and conference proceedings. A standard 25(OH)D level of 75-80nmol/l or more was used to indicate vitamin D sufficiency. Between 70% and 97% of Canadians demonstrate vitamin D insufficiency. Furthermore, studies assessing 25(OH)D levels of vitamin D at 25-40nmol/l reveal that many Canadians have profoundly deficient levels. Repletion of vitamin D3 with 2000IU/day for those not receiving judicious sun exposure and those with no contra-indications would likely achieve normalized levels in more than 93% of patients, without risk of toxicity. Explicit directives regarding vitamin D assessment and management are urgently required.
Department of Social Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
To explore how ethnic minorities at risk of vitamin D deficiency are constructed in Danish policy documents (current as of April 2009), regarding vitamin D supplementation.
Ten policy documents were analysed through content analysis, focusing on definitions and explanations of ethnic minorities being at risk of vitamin D deficiency. This formed the basis for an analysis of constructions of ethnic minorities at risk which was undertaken using the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory as an organising framework.
The analysis showed a high degree of interpretative flexibility regarding how ethnic minorities are constructed as a risk group for vitamin D deficiency. The ten documents analysed revealed eight different constructions of the ethnic minorities groups at risk. A low degree of interpretative flexibility was found regarding the importance of skin colour and skin covering. Major disagreements were found regarding the importance attributed to the Islamic religion, other traditions, immigration, gender and age, and use of an evolutionary explanation for the increased risk.
Ethnic minorities at risk of vitamin D deficiency are constructed very differently in Danish policies current as of April 2009. A more precise definition of ethnic minorities in policies and research may be helpful in seeking to identify which ethnic minorities are and are not at risk of vitamin D deficiency.
Inuvialuit of Arctic Canada are at high risk for inadequate vitamin D status as a result of rapid dietary transitions and a lack of solar ultraviolet B exposure. This may have implications for the development of adverse skeletal diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Data are limited regarding supplement use in Arctic Aboriginal populations. The present study aimed to describe the type and extent of supplement use, emphasising vitamin D, and to identify differences between supplement users and non-users.
Supplement information was collected from a population-specific quantitative food frequency questionnaire in three communities in the Northwest Territories, Canada, as part of a cross-sectional study. Data were analysed for frequency of supplementation and types of supplements. Users and non-users were compared in terms of age, sex, body mass index, education, marital status, income support, employment and chronic disease diagnosis using nonparametric tests and the chi-squared test.
Response rates ranged from 65% to 85%. Included in the analysis were 192 Inuvialuit (45 males, 147 females) with a mean (SD) age of 43.6 (13.9)?years. Twenty-three percent reported using a supplement, with multivitamins being the most common. Three percent indicated taking a vitamin D-containing supplement. No significant differences between supplement users and non-users were found.
Despite limited sun exposure for many months of the year, a small proportion of Inuvialuit adults were using supplements, and specifically vitamin D-containing supplements. Future population-based intervention strategies should promote consumption of vitamin D rich foods and encourage the use of vitamin D supplements if diet alone is unable to meet recommendations.
Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are a global health problem with northern countries such as Canada at particular risk. A number of sociodemographic factors have been reported to be associated with low vitamin D levels but prior studies have been limited by the ability of the researchers to gather this data directly from clinical trial participants. The purpose of this study was to use a novel methodology of inferring sociodemographic variables to evaluate the correlates of vitamin D levels in individuals dwelling in the City of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
We utilized data on vitamin D test results from Calgary Laboratory Services between January 1 2010 and August 31 2011. In addition to vitamin D level, we recorded age, sex, and vitamin D testing month as individual-level variables. We inferred sociodemographic variables by associating results with census dissemination areas and using Census Canada data to determine immigration status, education, median household income and first nations status as clustered variables. Associations between vitamin D status and the individual- and dissemination area-specific variables were examined using the population-averaged regression model by a generalized estimating equations approach to account for the clustering in the data.
158,327 individuals were included. Age, sex, month of vitamin D testing (at an individual level), and education, immigrant status, first nations status and income (at an aggregate level) were all statistically significant predictors of vitamin D status.
Vitamin D status was associated with a number of sociodemographic variables. Knowledge of these variables may improve targeted education and public health initiatives.
Since 2006, type 1 diabetes in Finland has plateaued and then decreased after the authorities' decision to fortify dietary milk products with cholecalciferol. The role of vitamin D in innate and adaptive immunity is critical. A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin D was recently discovered; in a correct analysis of the data used by the Institute of Medicine, it was found that 8895 IU/d was needed for 97.5% of individuals to achieve values =50 nmol/L. Another study confirmed that 6201 IU/d was needed to achieve 75 nmol/L and 9122 IU/d was needed to reach 100 nmol/L. The largest meta-analysis ever conducted of studies published between 1966 and 2013 showed that 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels 1 year of age, and around 8000 IU for young adults and thereafter. Actions are urgently needed to protect the global population from vitamin D deficiency.
Calcium and vitamin D intakes from food and supplements were estimated in Canadian men and women.
Calcium intakes from both diet and supplements and vitamin D intakes from fortified milk and supplements were estimated using cross-sectional data from 9423 randomly selected subjects aged 25 years or older, who were participating in a longitudinal study on osteoporosis. Subjects completed an abbreviated food frequency questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer between July 1995 and December 1997.
The mean (standard deviation) daily intake for calcium was estimated to be 1038 (614) mg for women and 904 (583) mg for men; for vitamin D, mean intakes were 5.6 (5.9) microg and 4.8 (5.5) microg for women and men, respectively.
Mean intakes for calcium and vitamin D in men and women under age 51 were close to the adequate daily intake levels. Older adults, however, may be at risk of deficiency.
Canadian Aboriginal women have high rates of bone fractures, which is possibly due to low dietary intake of minerals or vitamin D. This study was undertaken to estimate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D by designing a culturally appropriate dietary survey instrument and to determine whether disparities exist between Aboriginal and white women. After validation of a FFQ, 183 urban-dwelling and 26 rural-dwelling Aboriginal women and 146 urban white women completed the validated FFQ and had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measured. Urban Aboriginal women had lower (P=0.0004) intakes of total dietary calcium than urban white women; there was no difference in rural Aboriginal women. Only a minority of all women met the adequate intake (AI) for calcium intake. Ethnicity did not affect total vitamin D intake; however, rural Aboriginal women consumed all of their dietary vitamin D from food sources, which was more (P
The study aimed to determine the potential of compliance with Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) and increased vitamin D fortification to meet the recommended intake level of vitamin D at 10 µg/day based on minimal exposure to sunlight.
The main dietary sources of vitamin D were derived from national dietary surveys in adults from United Kingdom (UK) (n = 911), Netherlands (NL) (n = 1,526), and Sweden (SE) (n = 974). The theoretical increase in population vitamin D intake was simulated for the following: (1) compliance with FBDG, (2) increased level of vitamin D in commonly fortified foods, and (3) combination of both.
Median usual vitamin D intake was 2.4 (interquartile range 1.7-3.4) µg/day in UK, 3.4 (2.7-4.2) µg/day in NL, and 5.3 (3.9-7.3) µg/day in SE. The top 3 dietary sources of vitamin D were fish, fat-based spreads (margarines), and meat. Together, these delivered up to two-thirds of total vitamin D intake on average. Compliance with FBDG for fish, margarine, and meat increased vitamin D intake to 4.6 (4.1-5.1) µg/day in UK, 5.2 (4.9-5.5) µg/day in NL, and 7.7 (7.0-8.5) µg/day in SE. Doubling the vitamin D levels in margarines and milk would increase vitamin D intake to 4.9 (3.6-6.5) µg/day in UK, 6.6 (4.8-8.6) µg/day in NL, and 7.2 (5.2-9.8) µg/day in SE. Combining both scenarios would increase vitamin D intake to 7.9 (6.8-9.2) µg/day in UK, 8.8 (7.4-10.4) µg/day in NL, and 8.9 (6.9-11.8) µg/day in SE.
This study highlights the potential of dietary measures to double the current vitamin D intake in adults.
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Average vitamin D intake is low in Finland. Even though almost all retail milk and margarine are fortified with vitamin D, the vitamin D intake is inadequate for a significant proportion of the population. Consequently, expanded food fortification with vitamin D would be motivated. However, there is a risk of unacceptably high intakes due to the rather narrow range of the adequate and safe intake. Therefore, a safe and efficient food fortification practice should be found for vitamin D.
To develop a model for optimal food fortification and apply it to vitamin D.
The FINDIET 2002 Study (48-h recall and data on supplement use (n = 2007), and 3 + 3 days' food records, n = 247) was used as the test data. The proportion of the population whose vitamin D intake is between the recommended intake (RI) and the upper tolerable intake level (UL) was plotted against the fortification level per energy for selected foods. The fortification level that maximized the proportion of the population falling between RI and UL was considered the optimal fortification level.
If only milk, butter milk, yoghurt and margarine were fortified, it would be impossible to find a fortification level by which the intake of the whole population would lie within the RI-UL range. However, if all potentially fortifiable foods were fortified with vitamin D at level 1.2-1.5 microg/100 kcal, the intake of the whole adult population would be between the currently recommended intake of 7.5 microg/d and the current tolerable upper intake level of 50 microg/day (model 1). If the RI was set to 40 microg/day and UL to 250 microg/day, the optimal fortification level would be 9.2 microg/100 kcal in the scenario where all potentially fortifiable foods were fortified (model 2). Also in this model the whole population would fall between the RI-UL range.
Our model of adding a specific level of vitamin D/100 kcal to all potentially fortifiable foods (1.2-1.5 microg/100 kcal in model 1 and 9.2 microg/100 kcal in model 2) seems to be an efficient and safe food fortification practise.