Calcium urolithiasis is often associated with increased intestinal absorption and urine excretion of calcium, and has been suggested to result from increased vitamin D production. The role of the enzyme 1 alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step in active vitamin D production, was evaluated in 36 families, including 28 sibships with at least a pair of affected sibs, using qualitative and quantitative trait linkage analyses. Sibs with a verified calcium urolithiasis passage (n = 117) had higher 24-h calciuria (P = 0.03), oxaluria (P = 0.02), fasting and postcalcium loading urine calcium/creatinine (Ca/cr) ratios (P = 0.008 and P = 0.002, respectively), and serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels (P = 0.02) compared with nonstone-forming sibs (n = 120). Markers from a 9-centiMorgan interval encompassing the VDD1 locus on chromosome 12q13-14 (putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase) were analyzed in 28 sibships (146 sib pairs) of single and recurrent stone formers and in 14 sibships (65 sib pairs) with recurrent-only (> or = 3 episodes) stone-forming sibs. Two-point and multipoint analyses did not reveal excess in alleles shared among affected sibs at the VDD1 locus. Linkage of stone formation to the VDD1 locus could be excluded, respectively, with a lambda d of 2.0 (single and recurrent stone formers) and 3.25 (recurrent stone formers). Quantitative trait analyses revealed no evidence for linkage to 24-h calciuria and oxaluria, serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, and Ca/cr ratios. This study shows absence of linkage of the putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase locus to calcium stone formation or to quantitative traits associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria. In addition, there is coaggregation of calciuric and oxaluric phenotypes with stone formation.
To assess the very recent use of alcohol among patients admitted to two Finnish hospitals due to an acute hip fracture.
Very recent use of alcohol was recorded according to the patient's or the relatives' report. Ethanol was measured in blood samples taken at admission. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and vitamin D concentration were measured. Reported use of medication, vitamin D, and/or calcium supplementation was recorded.
Complete data were obtained on 222 of 375 eligible patients; 71% of those enrolled were women. The mean age of women was 80.5 years (SD 10) and of men 73 years (SD 12) (P 1.0 mg/l. Recent alcohol use was more common among patients in the age group of 65-74 years than among older patients (P
Circulating vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations are negatively associated with blood pressure (BP) but little is known about the mechanisms for this relationship. Adiposity is positively associated with BP and inversely with circulating 25OHD concentrations but no studies have assessed the relationship between plasma 25OHD and adiposity on BP. The goal of this study is to investigate if the association between plasma 25OHD and BP is mediated by adiposity.
The relationship between plasma 25OHD, systolic and diastolic BP, and adiposity [BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] was assessed in a multi-ethnic cross-sectional study of Aboriginal (n=151), Chinese (n=190), European (n=170), and South Asian (n=176) participants by linear regression models.
Plasma 25OHD concentrations were negatively associated with systolic (standardized B=-0.191, P
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of host defence against infection, inflammation and wound repair. We aimed to study AMP levels in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), and to examine their relation to clinical parameters and inflammatory markers.The 3-year Bergen COPD Cohort Study included 433 COPD patients and 325 controls. Induced sputum was obtained and analysed for levels of the AMPs human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and for the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) using immunoassays. Systemic hCAP18/LL-37 and vitamin D levels were also studied. Treating AMPs as response variables, non-parametric tests were applied for univariate comparison, and linear regression to obtain adjusted estimates. The risk of AECOPD was assessed by Cox proportional-hazard regression.Sputum AMP levels were higher in patients with stable COPD (n=215) compared to controls (n=45), and further changed during AECOPD (n=56), with increased hCAP18/LL-37 and decreased SLPI levels. Plasma hCAP18/LL-37 levels showed a similar pattern. In stable COPD, high sputum hCAP18/LL-37 levels were associated with increased risk of AECOPD, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae colonisation, higher age, ex-smoking and higher levels of inflammatory markers.Altered levels of selected AMPs are linked to airway inflammation, infection and AECOPD, suggesting a role for these peptides in airway defence mechanisms in COPD.
Department of Physical Therapy, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel. email@example.com
The aim is to evaluate the association between the serum level of vitamin D and prevalence and severity of radiographic hand OA. The study population comprised Chuvashians (91 men with a mean age of 46.24 (20-75) and 99 women with a mean age of 44.94 (18-74)). OA was evaluated for 14 joints of each hand using Kellgren and Lawrence's (K-L) scoring method and osteophytes (OS) scores. The following four outcomes were used: two indices of the number of affected joints (Num-KL and Num-OS) representing severity of hand OA and two indices of the presence of at least one affected joint (dichotomous indices) (Dich-KL and Dich-OS). Vitamin D (25(OH)D) level was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analyses included multiple linear and logistic regressions and one-way ANOVA. Linear regression models showed no significant association between the circulating levels of vitamin D and Num-KL (P = 0.781) or Num-OS (P = 0.338). The logistic regression models showed similar results: Dich-KL: (0.935 (0.864, 1.011), P = 0.093) and Dich-OS: (0.966 (0.896, 1.043), P = 0.378). Results of one-way ANOVA showed no differences in age, sex, and BMI-adjusted Num-KL between individuals with normal levels of vitamin D and those with a vitamin D deficiency (F = 0.023, P = 0.878). Similar results were received when adjusted Num-OS scores were compared (F = 1.553, P = 0.214). After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, no association was found between the serum level of vitamin D and prevalence and severity of radiographic hand OA evaluated using K-L or osteophyte scores.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be an important determinant of cortical bone remodeling in the elderly. Vitamin D status is one of the determining factors in this relationship. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between serum PTH, vitamin D and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women in Reykjavik (64 degrees N), where daily intake of cod liver oil is common and mean calcium intake is high. In PTH correlated inversely with 25(OH)D (r = -0.26, p
The associations of oral contraceptive use and cognitive dietary restraint with bone speed of sound (SOS) and bone turnover were investigated in 100 Canadian university-aged women (18-25 years old). Dietary restraint was assessed using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and daily calcium intake (Ca++) was assessed by the rapid assessment method. Quantitative ultrasound was used to measure SOS at the tibia and radius. Bone formation was estimated from plasma osteocalcin (OC), 25-OH vitamin D, and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Bone resorption was determined from serum cross-linked N-teleopeptide of type I collagen (NTx) and plasma C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Weekly physical activity energy expenditure (WAeq) was assessed using a standardized questionnaire, and height, body mass, relative body fat (%BF), and chest, waist, and hip circumferences were also measured. Participants were divided into low and moderate to high dietary restrainers (LDRs and MDRs, respectively). These groups were further sub-divided into users and non-users of oral contraceptives. All groups had similar age at menarche, body composition, WAeq, and equally low levels of Ca++ and vitamin D. Within the non-users of oral contraceptives, MDR exhibited a lower tibial SOS (p
Serum concentrations of vitamins A, D and E, osteocalcin, calcium, selenium, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were measured in 270 elderly Finnish men aged from 65 to 84 years. alpha-Tocopherol and selenium decreased with aging as did 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Low serum levels were found especially for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (19% less than 8 micrograms/l), selenium (45% less than 70 micrograms/l) and osteocalcin (52% less than 1.8 micrograms/l). Men living in institutions for the aged had lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than those living at home. Smoking was associated with decreased and alcohol consumption with increased serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Those men who reported having most weekly working hours had highest serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Serum osteocalcin correlated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D at normal or high serum vitamin levels but not at low vitamin levels; neither did it correlate with age or consumption of tobacco, alcohol or multivitamin pills.
Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites (chromatography) and bone mineral status (125I absorptiometry) were examined in a group of Aleutian Islanders age 40-75 from St Paul Island, Alaska. Based on 25-(OH)D (16.6 ng/ml) vitamin D status appeared adequate. However, high concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D (44.3 pg/ml) and very low concentrations of 24,25-(OH)2D3 (0.6 ng/ml) were found. Among females, low bone mineral levels were associated with high concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D. A low calcium intake in these Aleutians may be responsible for high concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D and resorption of calcium from bone.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 973.