Previous studies have suggested anti-infection effects of vitamin D, although the associations reported between vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration) and respiratory tract infection (RTI) are conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to explore this association in a Norwegian population.
We examined the association between serum 25(OH)D and recent RTI symptoms in 6350 middle-aged and elderly participants in the Tromsø Study 6. The main outcome measurement was self-reported RTI symptoms in the previous week.
Tromsø, Norway, 69 °N.
Six thousand three hundred and fifty middle-aged and elderly residents of Tromsø.
Of the 6350 included, 791 (12.5%) reported RTI symptoms in the previous week. We classified serum 25(OH)D concentrations into quartiles and adjusted the data for current smoking habit and month of attendance. The prevalence of RTI symptoms did not increase with decreasing serum 25(OH)D level, was highest in quartile 3 (15.0%) followed by quartile 4 (12.4%), and was lowest in quartiles 1 and 2 (11.1% and 11.4%). There was no trend for increasing duration of illness with decreasing serum 25(OH)D. The prevalence of RTI symptoms was not significantly associated with the intake of fish, n-3 capsules or vitamin and/or mineral supplements, or sun exposure. Only use of cod-liver oil or fish oil capsules daily or sometimes was significantly associated with fewer RTI symptoms during the preceding 7 d (P = 0.04).
Low serum 25(OH)D was not associated with increased prevalence of recent RTI symptoms. Our findings do not support the idea that vitamin D supplementation can reduce the incidence of RTI in Norway.
Vitamin D may be associated with reduced risks of several types of cancer, including colon, prostate, and breast. We examined the relationship between vitamin D-related questions administered in a telephone interview and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Three hundred and eight eligible women were randomly selected from controls in a breast cancer case-control study. Questions pertaining to sun exposure and dietary sources of vitamin D over the previous 4 weeks were asked in both summer and winter. We assessed the association between questionnaire-derived items and 25(OH)D using multiple linear regression. There were 217 participating women, 203 in summer and 213 in winter. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, and skin color. Number of days when more than 0.5 hour was spent outdoors per week ("7" versus "10" beta = 18.94, ">5-10" beta = 9.16, and "1-5" beta = 7.90 versus "10" beta = 14.54, ">5-10" beta = 11.54, and "1-5" beta = 2.15 versus "
Exemestane can prevent breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Because of potential widespread use, we examined the safety of exemestane on bone health.
In this nested safety substudy of the MAP.3 trial (a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of exemestane 25 mg a day for the primary prevention of breast cancer), we included postmenopausal women from five centres who were eligible to participate in MAP.3, not osteoporotic, not receiving drugs for bone-related disorders, with baseline lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck T-scores above -2·0. The primary endpoint was percent change from baseline to 2 years in total volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal radius by high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT. The primary analysis was per protocol using a non-inferiority margin. This analysis was done earlier than originally planned because of the impending announcement of MAP.3 results and subsequent unmasking of patients to treatment assignment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01144468, and has been extended to 5 years of unmasked follow-up.
351 women (176 given exemestane, 175 given placebo; median age 61·3 years [IQR 59·2-64·9]) met our inclusion criteria and completed baseline assessment. At the time of clinical cutoff, 242 women had completed 2-year follow-up (124 given exemestane, 118 given placebo). From baseline to 2 years, the mean percent change in total volumetric BMD at the distal radius was -6·1% (95% CI -7·0 to -5·2) in the exemestane group and -1·8% (-2·4 to -1·2) in the placebo group (difference -4·3%, 95% CI -5·3 to -3·2; p
Knowledge regarding the physiological role and dietary requirements of vitamin D has dramatically expanded over the past several decades. The "new" vitamin D is not only a mediator of calcium homeostasis, but also has important immunomodulatory, anti-microbial, and anti-proliferative actions. Amidst the growing interest in vitamin D as a mediator of many chronic diseases of adulthood such as cancer and type II diabetes, less attention has focused on the implications of the new understanding of vitamin D for child and adolescent health. This article reviews the definition of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) as it applies to children and adolescents, the current vitamin D status of Canadian children and adolescents, pediatric conditions that may be related to VDI, and the evidence base for current dietary recommendations for vitamin D intake. Pharmacokinetic studies and epidemiologic research that incorporates clinical and functional outcomes are needed to clarify the role of vitamin D in growth and development and the specific dietary vitamin D requirements among Canadian children and adolescents.
The National Report Card on Osteoporosis Care (2008) announced the need for comprehensive approaches to risk reduction and improvement in the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Dental research has suggested that low systemic bone-mineral density also occurs in alveolar bone, and people with osteoporosis may have an increased risk of tooth loss. Whether or not a causal link exists, both conditions share similar modifiable risk factors, including a role for calcium and vitamin D. The purpose of this paper was to critically examine the role calcium and vitamin D play in the relationship between osteoporosis and the risk of tooth loss.
Scientific articles were obtained through PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AgeLine and Web of Science. Publications were restricted to those involving human subjects, and English-language articles on calcium and vitamin D. The search yielded 8 articles relating to osteoporosis and tooth loss that included calcium and vitamin D intake.
Despite methodological concerns, the evidence shows a relationship between osteoporosis and tooth loss for people who have an inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Adequate calcium intake positively influences optimal peak bone mass and may also assist in tooth retention in later life.
The dental sector can assist with national prevention strategies for osteoporosis care.
To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them.
Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g/d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 µg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having =2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss =6 mm (not on the same tooth) and =1 inter-proximal site with pocket depth =5 mm. Since vitamin D influences Ca absorption, models were stratified by lower and higher (
OBJECTIVES: Dairy products consistently have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, yet the mechanism of this relationship remains unknown. Recent hypotheses propose that 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 D) is protective for prostate cancer. One study in the United States found that calcium consumption, which can lower circulating 1,25 D, was associated with higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, and we sought to address this hypothesis in a distinct population. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer conducted in Orebro, Sweden, with 526 cases and 536 controls. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we examined the relationship of dairy products, dietary calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D with risk of total, extraprostatic, and metastatic prostate cancer. RESULTS: Calcium intake was an independent predictor of prostate cancer (relative risk (RR) = 1.91, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.23-2.97 for intake > or = 1183 vs.
Comment In: Cancer Causes Control. 1998 Dec;9(6):541-310189038
We hypothesize that perinatal exposures, in particular the human microbiome and maternal nutrition during pregnancy, interact with the genetic predisposition to cause an abnormal immune modulation in early life towards a trajectory to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and others.
The aim of this study is to explore these interactions by conducting a longitudinal study in an unselected cohort of pregnant women and their offspring with emphasis on deep clinical phenotyping, exposure assessment, and biobanking. Exposure assessments focus on the human microbiome. Nutritional intervention during pregnancy in randomized controlled trials are included in the study to prevent disease and to be able to establish causal relationships.
Pregnant women from eastern Denmark were invited during 2008-2010 to a novel unselected 'COPSAC2010 ' cohort. The women visited the clinic during pregnancy weeks 24 and 36. Their children were followed at the clinic with deep phenotyping and collection of biological samples at nine regular visits until the age of 3 and at acute symptoms. Randomized controlled trials of high-dose vitamin D and fish oil supplements were conducted during pregnancy, and a trial of azithromycin for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze.
Seven hundred and thirty-eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over-representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction was high and the adherence equally high with 685 children (98%) attending the 1 year clinic visit and 667 children (95%) attending the 2 year clinic visit.
The COPSAC2010 birth cohort study provides longitudinal clinical follow-up with highly specific end-points, exposure assessments, and biobanking. The cohort has a high adherence rate promising strong data to elucidate the interaction between genomics and the exposome in perinatal life leading to lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma.