PURPOSE: To study the long-term results of implantation of the 3M diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL). SETTING: Eye Department, ASA, Arendal, Norway. METHODS: The study comprised 97 eyes in 72 patients. Follow-up was 8 years. Distance and near visual acuities, refractive results, contrast sensitivity, IOL centration, and neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) capsulotomies to treat posterior capsule opacification were evaluated. RESULTS: All patients without ocular pathology achieved a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 0.5 or better (i.e., 98.7% had a BCVA of 1.0 or better). Without correction, 73.8% of eyes had a Jaeger acuity of J3 or better and with distance correction, 92.1%. Emmetropia or within +/-0.25 diopter (D) of it was achieved in 58.8% of eyes. An astigmatic shift of 0.827 D cylinder correction was induced. This shift was mainly against the rule (0.717 D). Contrast sensitivity was reduced with spatial frequencies of 6 to 18 cycles per degree. No need for spectacles was reported by 54.2% of patients and by 68.0% of those with bilateral implantation. For near tasks, 63.9% of patients never used spectacles. The IOLs were well centered or minimally decentered in 99.0% of eyes. Posterior capsule opacification was treated by Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy in 55.7% of eyes, with a mean time between surgery and treatment of 34.0 months +/- 23.2 (SD). CONCLUSION: This long-term study proved the 3M diffractive IOL to be safe and effective despite some reduction in contrast sensitivity at higher spatial frequencies. More than half the patients never wore spectacles; 2 of 3 patients with IOLs in both eyes never wore spectacles. Proper patient selection is crucial.
PURPOSE: To describe the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) lesions and the related visual loss. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred forty-six residents (age range, 60-80 years) of Copenhagen participated in the study from 1986 through 1988. Excluding participants who had died since baseline, 359 persons (97.3% of survivors) were reexamined from 2000 through 2002. METHODS: Participants underwent extensive ophthalmologic examinations. Age-related maculopathy lesions were determined by grading color fundus photographs from the examinations using a modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of drusen type and size, pigmentary abnormalities, pure geographic atrophy, exudative ARM, visual impairment, and blindness. RESULTS: The 14-year incidences of early and late ARM were 31.5% and 14.8%, respectively. Individuals 75 to 80 years of age at baseline had significantly (P or =125 microm; 34.2% vs. 12.8%, respectively), soft drusen (45.2% vs. 21.4%), pigmentary abnormalities (31.4% vs. 17.0%), pure geographic atrophy (17.4% vs. 1.0%), and exudative ARM (23.3% vs. 5.7%). Severe drusen type, large drusen, and retinal pigmentary abnormalities at baseline were important predictors of incident late ARM. The 14-year incidences of visual impairment (20/200) or legal blindness from late ARM were 6.0% and 3.4%, respectively. Late ARM caused 35.7% of all visual impairment and 66.7% of all blindness. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high incidence of ARM lesions in this elderly white population. Severe drusen type and size or a combination of drusen and pigmentary abnormalities significantly increases the risk of developing late ARM, the most frequent cause of legal blindness in this population.
A retrospective analysis of adults with strabismus was done to examine the potential risks and the possible benefits of surgical treatment and to describe the types of adult strabismus.
Eight hundred ninety-two patients were analyzed. Age at time of surgery ranged from 9 years to 89 years. The average follow up was 34 months. Major types of strabismus were grouped by their original diagnoses. The group of patients with horizontal strabismus, which usually had an onset before 9, was termed the before visual maturity (BVM) group. The group of patients with paretic or restrictive strabismus usually had the onset of strabismus after age 9 and was termed the after visual maturity (AVM) group.
Patients with adult strabismus can gain restoration of alignment, as well as binocular function. At the last postoperative visit, 74% of the BVM group were aligned within 15 prism diopters. Not only was restoration of alignment accomplished, many of them gained some degree of sensory fusion as measured by the Worth 4-Dot (W4D) or Titmus stereoacuity. Twenty-nine percent of patients with congenital esotropia had some sensory fusion. The other subtypes in the BVM group had even higher percentages of patients with postoperative stereoacuity. In the AVM group, 92% had fusion at the last postoperative visit.
The outcomes of adult strabismics in our study show that certain benefits can be gained from correction of ocular alignment. Restoration of alignment, elimination of diplopia and sensory fusion are functional benefits that can be obtained through strabismus surgery in the adult patient. It is clear that adult strabismus is more than just a cosmetic problem and treatment is worthwhile.
PURPOSE: To evaluate safety, efficacy, predictability, and stability in the treatment of myopic astigmatism with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using the 200 Hz flying-spot technology of the LaserSight LSX excimer laser. SETTING: SynsLaser Clinic, Tromsø, Norway. METHODS: This retrospective study included 110 eyes treated with LASIK and 87 eyes treated with PRK that were available for evaluation at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) was -5.35 diopters (D) +/- 2.50 (SD) (range -1.13 to -11.88 D) in the LASIK eyes and -4.72 +/- 2.82 D (range -1.00 to -15.50 D) in the PRK eyes. The treated cylinder was 4.00 D in both groups. Eleven (8.5%) LASIK eyes and 8 (7.4%) PRK eyes had secondary surgical procedures before 6 and 12 months, respectively, and were excluded when the 6 and 12 month outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: None of the eyes lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. Seventy-seven percent of the LASIK eyes and 78% of the PRK eyes achieved an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better; 98% in both groups achieved 20/40 or better. The SE was within +/-0.5 D of the desired refraction in 83% of the LASIK eyes and 77% of the PRK eyes; it was within +/-1.0 D in 97% and 98%, respectively. The cylinder correction had a mean magnitude of error of 0.04 +/- 0.31 D (range -0.96 to +0.85 D) in the LASIK eyes and 0.02 +/- 0.37 D (range -1.44 to +0.72 D) in the PRK eyes. Refractive stability was achieved at 1 month and beyond in the LASIK eyes and at 3 months and beyond in the PRK eyes. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of this study are comparable to those achieved with lasers that use small-beam technology with a lower frequency, as well as with other types of delivery systems. They suggest that the 200 Hz technology used in the LaserSight LSX excimer laser is safe, effective, and predictable and that with LASIK and PRK the results are stable when treating low to moderate myopia and astigmatism up to 4.0 D.
To examine the accommodative amplitude and convergence in 10-year-old prematurely born children previously screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and to compare with full-term controls of the same age.
Two-hundred and thirteen prematurely born and 217 children born at term were included. Accommodative amplitude and near-point convergence were assessed, together with best-corrected visual acuity (VA). A questionnaire was answered regarding possible problems at school.
Binocular accommodation (P = 0.03) and convergence (P = 0.003) were significantly poorer in prematurely born children. Accommodation was correlated to neurological findings in the preterm group, but not to the degree of prematurity or stage of ROP. Regarding convergence there were no correlations to neurology, stage of ROP, or degree of prematurity. For neither accommodation nor convergence were any correlations with distance and near VA found. Preterm children had a higher prevalence of school problems, and there was an association with poor accommodation.
Prematurely born children had poorer accommodation and convergence than full-term children, but no association with near VA was found. The reduction of accommodative amplitude and convergence was small and was probably of little clinical significance. However, it may have additional effects on other ophthalmological problems and school problems in the preterm group.
AIM: To describe the clinical spectrum of achiasmia, a congenital disorder of reduced relative decussation at the optic chiasm. METHODS: A retrospective case note and patient review of nine children (four boys). Achiasmia was defined by the combination of a characteristic asymmetry of the monocular visual evoked potential (VEP) response to flash and neuroimaging showing reduced chiasmal size. RESULTS: Three of the children had an associated skull base encephalocele with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In two patients achiasmia was associated with septo-optic dysplasia. Three patients had no neuroimaging abnormalities other than reduced chiasmal size and have no known pituitary dysfunction. One child had multiple physical deformities but the only brain imaging abnormality was reduced chiasmal size. CONCLUSIONS: Some children with disorders of midline central nervous system development, including septo-optic dysplasia and skull base encephaloceles, have congenitally reduced chiasmal decussation. Reduced relative decussation may co-exist with overall chiasmal hypoplasia. Children with an apparently isolated chiasmal decussation deficit may have other subtle neurological findings, but our clinical impression is that most of these children function well.
Erratum In: Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jan;90(1):125Jeffery, G [corrected to Jeffrey, G]; Liassis, A [corrected to Liasis, A]
Ten years after the foundation of a national diabetic eye screening program in 1980, we have established a low prevalence of blindness and partial sight in type 1 and type 2 diabetics in Iceland. We ask whether the screening program is also associated with a low incidence of blindness in diabetics. We now report the results of a prospective study on the 4-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy and visual impairment in type 1 diabetics with age at onset less than 30 years. Out of 205 patients participating at baseline, 175 patients (85.4%) participated over the full 4-year period. Patients were examined annually and received laser treatment according to Diabetic- and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria. The 4-year incidence of any retinopathy was 38.1%, of proliferative retinopathy 6.6%, and of macular edema 3.4%. Out of 174 patients, 7.4% showed improvement in visual acuity of 2 Snellen lines while 2.5% experienced worsening of visual acuity of 2 Snellen lines during the 4-year period. No diabetic suffered more than 2 lines deterioration of vision and none became legally blind. The incidence of retinopathy in Icelandic type 1 diabetics participating in our annual eye screening program is low and the visual acuity stable. Our results suggest that visual impairment in diabetics can be prevented with active regular screening and standard laser therapy.