To describe the visual function and ocular health of frail elderly patients institutionalized in a tertiary care university-affiliated geriatric hospital.
Retrospective file review.
A university-affiliated geriatric hospital.
440 patient files.
The archived clinical files of patients from the long-term care beds of the Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, who had died between April 2000 and 2004 were reviewed. Pertinent medical and visual characteristics were extracted and entered into a database for analysis.
The age of the patients ranged from 65 to 104 years. The major ocular conditions observed were cataract, pseudophakia, conjunctivitis-blepharitis, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Of the 231 patients referred for a partial or full eye examination, visual acuity was available in 178. Visual impairment was considered absent in 87 patients; mild in 52; moderate in 17; and 22 patients were legally blind. Of the 105 patients referred for a full eye examination, an evaluation of the refraction, visual acuity, and ocular health was possible in 89, irrespective of their cognitive status.
These data demonstrate that the vast majority of severely disabled elderly patients examined retained good visual acuity into advanced age. The most prevalent ocular conditions observed are treatable, thereby emphasizing the importance of regular eye care for the institutionalized frail elderly. The results clearly demonstrate that it is possible to perform a complete evaluation of visual function and ocular health in the elderly institutionalized patient, independent of age, cognitive status, or communication disorders.
A method for training children and adults to perceive visual information without using the eyes has been developed. A study was conducted to investigate the correlation of this perceptual capacity, known as direct vision (DV), with bioelectrographic measurements.
Using the technique of dynamic digital gas-discharge visualization (GDV) bioelectrography, seven subjects were tested on three occasions over a 7-month period while they were in the process of reading information from a computer screen and reading printed text; this testing was repeated after an interval of 2 years.
In multiple trials it was found that with the perception of information by DV, curves of GDV versus time exhibited specific dynamics, confirming the phenomenon of DV. At least three types of GDV characteristics can be distinguished in this state. This study also identified improvements in the psychosomatic state of children during the 7-month course of training in DV.
The phenomenon of DV presents a newly recognized type of human information processing. It is based on a specific type of mental training that is statistically reproducible and has been assimilated by hundreds of children in Russia who are blind or have poor vision. The discovery of DV opens new perspectives in the study of the mechanisms of consciousness. The GDV characteristics that were observed during the perception of information by DV support the hypothesis that DV occurs through signals within the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. These results allow the proposal of a hypothesis for the way in which the brain, as well as the human system as a whole, registers information.
PURPOSE: To assess and optimize the Catquest questionnaire for measuring patient-reported outcomes of cataract surgery using Rasch analysis. SETTING: Fifty-eight ophthalmic surgical units in Sweden. METHODS: Catquest questionnaires (n = 21364) from the Swedish National Cataract Register were selected and randomized to 2 groups. Data from 10486 questionnaires were comprehensively Rasch analyzed using a 4-Andrich rating scale model in Winsteps software. A revised version of Catquest was developed (Catquest-9SF) and tested in 10886 patients for validity and responsiveness to cataract surgery. RESULTS: Only the visual disability subscale formed a valid measurement scale. This could be enhanced through the addition of the 2 global assessment items; however, the symptoms and frequency of performing the activities items did not contribute to the measurement. The 9-item short-form version (Catquest-9SF) had ordered response thresholds and good person separation (2.65) and was largely free from differential item functioning. All items fit a single overall construct (infit range, 0.75 to 1.29; outfit range, 0.70 to 1.39) and unidimensional by principal components analysis. The items were well targeted to the preoperative participants (0.34 logit difference in means). The score correlated with visual acuity (r = 0.43 preoperatively; r = 0.48 postoperatively) and was highly responsive to cataract surgery (preoperatively -0.32 +/- 2.15 logits; postoperatively -3.21 +/- 2.50 logits (P
The visual fatigue-affecting conditions of the classes of a higher educational institute were examined in students. The authors determined the light level of working places and its compliance with hygienic regulations of the factors influencing the students' visual perception. They analyzed and identified avoidable causes of variance of the light level and conjugate variables. Guidelines for optimizing the light level have been developed, by taking into account the lowest required tangible cost. A program of organizational actions, which aimed at following the sanitary-and-hygienic specifications at higher school, has been worked out.
The authors suggest a conceptual approach justifying major directions in prophylaxis, correction and rehabilitation of eye in aviation operators of electronic display means. Necessity of multifarious attitude to the medical management.