In the last several years, West Nile virus (WNV) was proven to be present especially in the neighboring countries of Austria, such as Italy, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, as well as in eastern parts of Austria, where it was detected in migratory and domestic birds. In summer 2010, infections with WNV were reported from Romania and northern Greece with about 150 diseased and increasingly fatal cases. We tested the sera of 1,607 blood donors from North Tyrol (Austria) and South Tyrol (Italy) for antibodies against WNV by using IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Initial results of the ELISA tests showed seroprevalence rates of 46.2% in North Tyrol and 0.5% in South Tyrol, which turned out to be false-positive cross-reactions with antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) by adjacent neutralization assays. These results indicate that seropositivity against WNV requires confirmation by neutralization assays, as cross-reactivity with TBEV is frequent and because, currently, WNV is not endemic in the study area.
BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant plasmid DNA pSVK3-ENS1 and pcDNAI-NS3 containing, respectively, genes E-NS1 and NS3 of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. Antibodies to TBE virus proteins were detected in the blood sera of the immunized animals by the method of the enzyme immunoassay. Though the titers of virus-specific antibodies in the sera of mice immunized with protein vaccines exceeded those registered after immunization with DNA vaccines, essential protective immunity was observed after the use of both vaccines.
The word deals with the results obtained in the study of the reactogenicity and immunological activity of concentrated and inactivated tissue-culture tick-borne encephalitis vaccine, manufactured by the Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides, in the immunization of children and adolescents. The vaccine proved to be moderately reactogenic and exhibited pronounced immunological activity. In 91.5% of the immunized children the fourfold increase of the antibody level was observed. On the basis of the data obtained in this study the tick-borne encephalitis vaccine was recommended for use in medical practice for the prophylaxis of tick-borne encephalitis among children and adolescents.
The 191 adult patients with acute encephalitis who attended the Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Helsinki, during the 12-year period 1967-78, were analyzed for epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features. Young healthy adults of either sex under 30 years of age were the most susceptible. The duration of symptoms varied from some hours to more than one month (less than or equal to 5 days in half of the patients). Prodromal symptoms were observed in 37.7%, meningeal signs or symptoms in 93.2%, features indicating brain involvement in 84.3% and clear effects on consciousness in 27.7% of the patients. Half (50.8%) recovered, while 43 (22.5%) were left with at least moderate disability after the acute phase. Twelve patients (6.3%) died. Lower socioeconomic status and age over 35 years were associated with increased mortality. The 10 patients with proven or presumptive herpes simplex virus (HSV) etiology had a mortality of 40% and only one recovered satisfactorily. There were 14 further cases suggestive of HSV. Mumps, Coxsackie B, adeno, and measles were the most frequent identifiable causes after HSV. Other etiological factors, including bacteria, appeared occasionally. The etiology remained obscure in 58.6% of the cases.
Asthma risk is increased after bronchiolitis in infancy. Recent studies have suggested that the risk may be dependent on the causative virus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the asthma risk in adolescence in subjects hospitalized for rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infancy.
At the median age of 16.5 years, a questionnaire was sent to 96 study subjects hospitalized for bronchiolitis at