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Duration of immunogenicity and efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in a Yupik Eskimo population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5697
Source
JAMA. 1989 Apr 28;261(16):2362-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-28-1989
Author
R B Wainwright
B J McMahon
L R Bulkow
D B Hall
M A Fitzgerald
A P Harpster
S C Hadler
A P Lanier
W L Heyward
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Laboratory, Center for Infectious Diseases, Anchorage, AK 99501.
Source
JAMA. 1989 Apr 28;261(16):2362-6
Date
Apr-28-1989
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alaska
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hepatitis B - epidemiology - prevention & control
Hepatitis B Antibodies - metabolism
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - analysis
Hepatitis B Vaccines
Humans
Immunizations
Infant
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Vaccine
Viral Hepatitis Vaccines - immunology
Abstract
In 1981, a hepatitis B virus vaccine demonstration project was conducted in 1630 Yupik Eskimos in southwest Alaska. Levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen and markers for hepatitis B virus infection in vaccinees were monitored yearly for 5 years. After 5 years of follow-up, 19% of those who initially had an immune response to vaccine of 10 sample ratio units or greater subsequently had levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen lower than 10 sample ratio units. During the 5 years after the first dose of vaccine, in three responders and one person with an antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen response lower than 10 sample ratio units, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen developed, and the level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen was boosted. Hepatitis B surface antigen did not develop in any subjects, and none had clinical hepatitis. In the 5 years following the demonstration project, the annual incidence of hepatitis B virus infection decreased from 50 cases per 1000 population before the vaccine trial to 0.45 per 1000.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1956.
PubMed ID
2523002 View in PubMed
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Response to hepatitis B vaccine in Alaska natives with chronic alcoholism compared with non-alcoholic control subjects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5691
Source
Am J Med. 1990 May;88(5):460-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1990
Author
B J McMahon
K. Wainwright
L. Bulkow
A J Parkinson
M. Lindenbaum
R. Wainwright
C. Helminiak
Author Affiliation
Hepatitis B Program, Department of Medicine, Alaska Native Medical Center, Anchorage 99510-7741.
Source
Am J Med. 1990 May;88(5):460-4
Date
May-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alaska
Alcoholism - enzymology - ethnology - immunology
Case-Control Studies
Female
Hepatitis B - immunology - prevention & control
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - analysis
Hepatitis B Vaccines
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Transaminases - blood
Viral Hepatitis Vaccines - immunology
Abstract
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine if (1) alcoholics have a higher prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers than do non-alcoholic controls and (2) if they respond to hepatitis B vaccination in a manner similar to that of non-alcoholic controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was designed as a case-control study, and 129 Alaska Natives were recruited. Alcoholics were recruited from inpatient wards, outpatient clinics, a soup kitchen serving the homeless, and several alcohol rehabilitation centers; control subjects were recruited primarily from among Alaska Native Hospital employees. A standardized questionnaire, the Alcohol Dependency Scale (ADS), was administered to all participants. Each participant was screened for hepatitis B serologic markers, had liver function studies performed, and was examined for evidence of liver disease. Participants seronegative for HBV markers received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. Linear regression analysis was performed to compare the amount of alcohol intake and variables associated with liver disease with the response to hepatitis B vaccination and antibody levels achieved. Using an ADS score of greater than 13, 64 participants were classified as chronic alcoholics, and 60 were classified as controls. RESULTS: HBV seropositivity was found in 22 alcoholics (34.4%) and seven controls (11.7%). After adjusting for age and sex, this difference was significant (chi 2 MH = 6.57, df = 1; p = 0.012). Abnormal levels of liver transaminase occurred significantly more often in alcoholic participants than in control subjects (chi 2 MH = 4.91, df = 1; p = 0.026). Of 95 seronegative persons, 72 received three doses of hepatitis B plasma-derived vaccine. Alcoholic subjects and control subjects did not differ significantly in their response to vaccination. Only four alcoholics and two controls did not develop antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) after hepatitis B vaccination, and two alcoholics and three controls had anti-HBs levels less than 10 SRU by radioimmunoassay. Mean anti-HBs levels measured in milli-international units (mIU) for the 62 responders showed a decrease in the anti-HBs level with increasing age (p less than 0.001). There was no difference in the mean anti-HBs log10 mIU between alcoholics and controls younger than 45 years of age, but in persons greater than 45 years of age, alcoholics had a lower mean anti-HBs log10 mIU level than did controls; this difference, however, was not significant (p greater than 0.10). CONCLUSION: Chronic alcoholics have a higher prevalence of HBV seromarkers than do age-matched controls. Seronegative alcoholics, especially those under age 45, respond well to hepatitis B vaccination, and such vaccination should be considered in all chronic alcoholic persons.
PubMed ID
2140010 View in PubMed
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Response to hepatitis B vaccine of persons positive for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5683
Source
Gastroenterology. 1992 Aug;103(2):590-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1992
Author
B J McMahon
A J Parkinson
C. Helminiak
R B Wainwright
L. Bulkow
A. Kellerman-Douglas
S. Schoenberg
D. Ritter
Author Affiliation
Alaska Native Medical Center, Indian Health Service, Anchorage.
Source
Gastroenterology. 1992 Aug;103(2):590-4
Date
Aug-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Hepatitis Antibodies - analysis
Hepatitis B Antibodies - analysis
Hepatitis B Core Antigens - immunology
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - immunology
Hepatitis B Vaccines
Humans
Immunization, Secondary
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Radioimmunoassay
Viral Hepatitis Vaccines - immunology
Abstract
The significance of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) present in a person's serum without hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or its antibody (anti-HBs) is unknown. Serum specimens from 281 persons initially positive only for anti-HBc by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were retested by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and of these, 177 (63%) remained positive for anti-HBc by both assays. Of these 177 persons, 3 were positive for HBsAg, and 72 possessed low levels of anti-HBs [less than 10 sample ratio units; (SRU's)]. When persons positive for anti-HBc by EIA and RIA were given one 20-micrograms dose of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine and tested for anti-HBs 1 month later, a booster response was observed in 14 of 41 (34%) persons with low level anti-HBs and 3 of 50 (6%) persons negative for anti-HBs. Of those positive only for anti-HBc by EIA but negative by RIA, only 3 of 37 (8.1%) showed a booster response. Of those who completed the three-dose immunization series and did not show a booster response, 63 of 80 (78.8%) developed anti-HBs levels greater than 10 standard ratio unit. The majority of persons with isolated anti-HBc will have a primary rather than a booster response to hepatitis B vaccine.
Notes
Comment In: Gastroenterology. 1994 Mar;106(3):823-48119561
PubMed ID
1386048 View in PubMed
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[Unresolved and debatable problems in the epidemiology and prevention of viral hepatitis].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219180
Source
Voen Med Zh. 1994 Jan;(1):43-7, 80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1994
Author
P I Ogarkov
Source
Voen Med Zh. 1994 Jan;(1):43-7, 80
Date
Jan-1994
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Hepatitis, Viral, Human - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Viral Hepatitis Vaccines - immunology
Abstract
The article summarizes the materials on epidemiological peculiarities of A, B, C, D and E hepatitis and gives its etiological structure among the population of Russia and particularly in the Armed Forces. The author arouses a polemical discussion on the latest data concerning the disclosure of A-hepatitis viral genome in saliva, urine and blood. There is a proposal to apply immunofermental method in the clinical and epidemiological practice, as well as in Blood Supply Service. The author stresses that it is necessary to increase the number of specific markers that are used for diagnostical purposes. The article describes the state and outlook for vaccine prophylaxis, determines the trends for further scientific researches on the problem of viral hepatitis in the Armed Forces.
PubMed ID
8178504 View in PubMed
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6 records – page 1 of 1.