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A 20-year prospective study of mortality and causes of death among hospitalized opioid addicts in Oslo.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87156
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Bjornaas Mari A
Bekken Anette S
Ojlert Aasa
Haldorsen Tor
Jacobsen Dag
Rostrup Morten
Ekeberg Oivind
Author Affiliation
Department of Acute Medicine, Ullevaal University Hospital, N-0407 Oslo, Norway. mabjornaas@gmail.com
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:8
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - mortality
Adolescent
Adult
Cause of Death - trends
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospital Mortality - trends
Humans
Male
Mathematical Computing
Narcotics - poisoning
Neoplasms - mortality
Opioid-Related Disorders - mortality - rehabilitation
Overdose - mortality - prevention & control
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Risk
Street Drugs - poisoning
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
BACKGROUND: To study mortality rate and causes of death among all hospitalized opioid addicts treated for self-poisoning or admitted for voluntary detoxification in Oslo between 1980 and 1981, and to compare their mortality to that of the general population. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 185 opioid addicts from all medical departments in Oslo who were treated for either self-poisoning (n = 93, 1980), voluntary detoxification (n = 75, 1980/1981) or both (n = 17). Their median age was 24 years; with a range from 16 to 41, and 53% were males. All deaths that had occurred by the end of 2000 were identified from the Central Population Register. Causes of death were obtained from Statistics Norway. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for mortality, in general, and in particular, for different causes of death. RESULTS: During a period of 20 years, 70 opioid addicts died (37.8%), with a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) equal to 23.6 (95% CI, 18.7-29.9). The SMR remained high during the whole period, ranging from 32.4 in the first five-year period, to 13.4 in the last five-year period. There were no significant differences in SMR between self-poisonings and those admitted for voluntarily detoxification. The registered causes of death were accidents (11.4%), suicide (7.1%), cancer (4.3%), cardiovascular disease (2.9%), other violent deaths (2.9%), other diseases (71.4%). Among the 50 deaths classified as other diseases, the category "drug dependence" was listed in the vast majority of cases (37 deaths, 52.9% of the total). SMRs increased significantly for all causes of death, with the other diseases group having the highest SMR; 65.8 (95% CI, 49.9-86.9). The SMR was 5.4 (95% CI, 1.3-21.5) for cardiovascular diseases, and 4.3 (95% CI, 1.4-13.5) for cancer. The SMR was 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6-26.4) for accidents, 10.7 (95% CI, 4.5-25.8) for suicides, and 28.6 (95% CI, 7.1-114.4) for other violent deaths. CONCLUSION: The risk of death among opioid addicts was significantly higher for all causes of death compared with the general population, implying a poor prognosis over a 20-year period for this young patient group.
PubMed ID
18271956 View in PubMed
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Acts of offensive behaviour and risk of long-term sickness absence in the Danish elder-care services: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132870
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2012 May;85(4):381-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Thomas Clausen
Annie Hogh
Vilhelm Borg
Author Affiliation
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersoe Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark. tcl@nrcwe.dk
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2012 May;85(4):381-7
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Bullying
Denmark
Female
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Prospective Studies
Risk
Risk factors
Sex Offenses - statistics & numerical data
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Social Behavior
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To investigate associations between acts of offensive behaviour (threats, violence, bullying, and unwanted sexual attention) and risk of long-term sickness absence for eight or more consecutive weeks among female staff in the Danish elder-care services.
These associations were investigated using Cox regression analysis. Data consisted of a merger between Danish survey data collected among 9,520 female employees in the Danish elder-care services and register data on sickness absence compensation.
Compared to unexposed employees, employees frequently exposed to threats (HR = 1.52, 95% CI:1.11-2.07), violence (HR = 1.54, 95% CI:1.06-2.25), and bullying (HR = 2.33, 95% CI:1.55-3.51) had significantly increased risk of long-term sickness absence when adjusting for age, job function, tenure, BMI, smoking status, and psychosocial work conditions. When mutually adjusting for the four types of offensive behaviours, only bullying remained significantly associated with risk of long-term sickness absence (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.50-3.42). No significant associations were found between unwanted sexual attention and risk for long-term sickness absence.
Results indicate that prevention of threats, violence, and bullying may contribute to reduced sickness absence among elder-care staff. The results furthermore suggest that work organizations must be attentive on how to handle and prevent acts of offensive behaviour and support targets of offensive behaviours.
PubMed ID
21769454 View in PubMed
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ADHD symptoms and associated psychopathology in a community sample of adolescents from the European north of Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161796
Source
J Atten Disord. 2008 Jul;12(1):54-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Vladislav Ruchkin
Boris Lorberg
Roman Koposov
Mary Schwab-Stone
Denis G Sukhodolsky
Author Affiliation
Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-7900, USA. vladislav.ruchkin@yale.edu
Source
J Atten Disord. 2008 Jul;12(1):54-63
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Catchment Area (Health)
Child
Comorbidity
Europe - epidemiology
Faculty
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Observer Variation
Residence Characteristics
Russia - epidemiology
Severity of Illness Index
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia.
The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports.
Prevalence of individual ADHD symptoms ranges between 3.3% and 35%. Only 8.9% of boys and 3.6% of girls have positive ratings on six items in either inattention or hyperactivity subtype. These adolescents fare significantly worse regarding externalizing but not internalizing problems. Compared to girls with ADHD, boys with ADHD report higher levels of violent and nonviolent delinquency and are described by teachers as having more conduct problems. Possible ADHD status is associated with depressive symptoms in boys but not in girls.
The estimates of ADHD prevalence rates obtained in this study are similar to those of other countries, suggesting the need for identification and treatment of the disorder. Evaluation of associated disruptive behavior disorders and depression, particularly in boys, is warranted.
PubMed ID
17712166 View in PubMed
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Adolescent criminality: multiple adverse health outcomes and mortality pattern in Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300893
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Apr 11; 19(1):400
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-11-2019
Author
Marlene Stenbacka
Tomas Moberg
Jussi Jokinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. marlene.stenbacka@ki.se.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Apr 11; 19(1):400
Date
Apr-11-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aggression
Cohort Studies
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Criminals - statistics & numerical data
Health Behavior
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate the impact of adolescent violent and non-violent criminality and subsequent risk of morbidity and mortality in adulthood in a large Swedish cohort of young men conscripted for military service in 1969/70.
The cohort consisted of 49,398 18-year-old Swedish conscripts followed up for morbidity and mortality up to the age of 55?years in Swedish national registers. Information about convictions for crime before conscription was obtained from national crime registers. Data from a survey at conscription were scrutinized to get information on potential confounders.
Hospitalization due to alcohol and drug related diagnoses and attempted suicide were significantly more evident in the violent group compared to non-violent criminals and non-criminals. More than one fifth (21.13%) of the young violent offenders, 12.90% of the non-violent offenders and 4.96% of the non-criminals had died during the follow-up period. In Cox proportional multivariate analyses, young violent offenders had twice the hazard (HR?=?4.29) of all-cause mortality than the non-violent offenders (HR?=?2.16) during the follow-up period. Alcohol and drug related mortality, suicide and fatal accidents were most evident in both violent and non-violent offenders.
Men with adolescent criminality received more inpatient care due to alcohol and drug related diagnoses and attempted suicide as adults. Mortality due to unnatural causes, alcohol, and drug related diagnoses, suicide and accidents was most evident in violent offenders, while these causes of death were much lower in non-criminals. Men with adolescent criminality are a high-risk group for multiple adverse health outcomes and for early death. Efforts for detection of substance use and psychiatric disorders in this group is important for the prevention work in both local- and community levels as well as national prevention programs.
PubMed ID
30975117 View in PubMed
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Adolescent homicides in Finland: offence and offender characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171077
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Dec 20;164(2-3):110-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-20-2006
Author
Camilla Hagelstam
Helinä Häkkänen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Criminal and Forensic Psychology Research Group, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Dec 20;164(2-3):110-5
Date
Dec-20-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Aged
Child
Conduct Disorder - epidemiology
Crime Victims - statistics & numerical data
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Forensic Psychiatry
Homicide - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Intelligence
Male
Methods
Middle Aged
Motivation
Personality Disorders - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Self-Injurious Behavior - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Approximately 9% of the homicides in Finland are committed by adolescents under 20 years of age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the offence and offender characteristics in homicidal adolescents. Forensic psychiatric evaluation statements of adolescent offenders accused of a homicide during 1990-2001 were reviewed retrospectively (n=57). In 38% of the cases, there were multiple offenders. In 58% of the cases, the victim was an acquaintance, in 25% a stranger, in 12% a family member and in 5% of the cases an (ex)intimate partner. Sixty-nine percent of the offenders were intoxicated and 21% under the influence of drugs at the time of the killing. The most frequent motives were an argument (25%) and a robbery (25%). Sixty-four percent of the offenders had developmental problems and 42% had a crime history. Approximately half were diagnosed as having a conduct or a personality disorder, but 32% of the offenders were considered not to suffer from a mental illness or substance abuse. For 63%, the level of intellectual functioning was average or above average. There were signs of more than one form of violence in 54% of the cases and 28% of the cases contained excessive violence. The use of multiple and excessive violence was significantly related to the offender age, multiple offenders, offender-victim relationship and substance abuse, but not related to having developmental problems, crime history or mental illness.
PubMed ID
16426787 View in PubMed
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Adolescent Substance Misusers with and without Delinquency: Death, Mental and Physical Disorders, and Criminal Convictions from Age 21 to 45.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275950
Source
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2015 Dec;59:1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Peter Larm
Teresa C Silva
Sheilagh Hodgins
Source
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2015 Dec;59:1-9
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Criminals - statistics & numerical data
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - statistics & numerical data
Male
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Mortality
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Little is known about adult outcomes of males who as adolescents sought treatment for alcohol misuse or drug use, and who additionally were engaging or not engaging in other forms of delinquency. Since the rates of negative outcomes vary in the general population, the study determined whether the sub-groups of clinic attendees fared differently as compared to males of the same age who had not sought treatment for substance misuse from age 21 to 45. Adolescent males who consulted the only substance misuse clinic in a Swedish city between 1968 and 1971 were divided into four groups: ALCOHOL no drug use, no criminal offending (n=52); ALCOHOL+D no drug use, plus criminal offending (n=105); DRUG use, no criminal offending (n=92); and DRUG+D plus criminal offending (n=474). These four groups were compared to a general population sample (GP) of males matched on age and birthplace, who did not seek treatment for SM in adolescence. National Swedish registers provided data on death, hospitalizations for substance misuse (SM), mental and physical disorders, and criminal convictions. Compared to the GP, and after controlling for co-occurring adult outcomes, ALCOHOL showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization and convictions for violent crimes, and DRUG showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization, convictions for non-violent crimes, and hospitalization for psychosis. ALCOHOL+D and DRUG+D showed increased risk for SM hospitalization, violent and non-violent convictions, and DRUG+D additionally, for death, and hospitalizations for psychosis and physical illness. Misuse of alcohol without drug use or other delinquency in adolescence was associated with increased risk for convictions for violent crimes during the subsequent 25 years, in addition to SM, while adolescent drug use without other forms of delinquency was associated with increased risks for convictions for non-violent crimes, hospitalizations for SM, and non-affective psychosis. Cannabis use, with and without delinquency, was associated with subsequent hospitalization for non-affective psychosis. Consistent with contemporary studies, most adolescents treated for SM from 1968-1971 presented delinquency that was associated with an increase in risk of all adverse outcomes to age 45.
PubMed ID
26342514 View in PubMed
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Adolescent survey non-response and later risk of death. A prospective cohort study of 78,609 persons with 11-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163423
Source
BMC Public Health. 2007;7:87
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Ville M Mattila
Jari Parkkari
Arja Rimpelä
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of Tampere, 33101 Tampere, Finland. ville.mattila@uta.fi
Source
BMC Public Health. 2007;7:87
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Alcoholic Intoxication - mortality
Child
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk assessment
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Wounds and Injuries - mortality
Abstract
Non-response in survey studies is a growing problem and, being usually selective, it leads to under- or overestimation of health outcomes in the follow-up. We followed both respondents and non-respondents by registry linkage to determine whether there is a risk of death, related to non-response at baseline.
Sample data of biennial surveys to 12-18-year-old Finns in 1979-1997 were linked with national death registry up to 2001. The number of respondents was 62,528 (79.6%) and non-respondents 16,081 (20.4%). The average follow-up was 11.1 years, totalling 876,400 person-years. The risk of death between non-respondents and respondents was estimated by hazard ratios (HR).
The number of deaths per 100,000 person-years were 229 in non-respondents and 447 in respondents (HR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5-2.6). The hazard ratios of death were for intoxication 3.2 (95% CI: 1.9-5.4), for disease 3.1 (95% CI: 2.2-4.1), for violence-related injury 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5-2.6) and for unintentional injury 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.4) in non-respondents vs. respondents. The association between non-response and death increased with age at baseline, and the increase persisted after the age of 25.
Our study demonstrated significantly increased rates of death among adolescent non-respondents in a follow-up. The highest hazard ratios were seen in disease- and violence-related deaths. The death rate varied between respondents and non-respondents by death type. Increased rates of death persisted beyond the age of 25.
Notes
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Aug 15;154(4):373-8411495861
Cites: J Public Health Med. 2002 Dec;24(4):285-9112546205
Cites: Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(5):437-4415233316
Cites: Eur J Epidemiol. 1997 Feb;13(2):195-2009085004
Cites: Scand J Soc Med. 1993 Jun;21(2):77-828367686
Cites: Scand J Soc Med. 1995 Jun;23(2):129-367676219
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 1987 Dec;41(4):295-93455423
PubMed ID
17519009 View in PubMed
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Aggressive crime, alcohol and drug use, and concentrated poverty in 24 U.S. urban areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162146
Source
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2007;33(4):595-603
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Avelardo Valdez
Charles D Kaplan
Russell L Curtis
Author Affiliation
Graduate School of Social Work, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4013, USA. avaldez2@uh.edu
Source
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2007;33(4):595-603
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aggression - psychology
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Crime Victims - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Poverty Areas
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Social Control, Formal
Street Drugs
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
United States - epidemiology
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The nexus between substance use and aggressive crime involves a complex interrelationship among mediating individual and community-level variables. Using multilevel logistic regression models, we investigate how community-level concentration of poverty variables mediate the predictive relationships among individual level social attachment variables and substance use on aggressive crime in a large national sample of male arrestees (N = 20,602) drawn from 24 U.S. urban areas. The findings support our hypothesis that individual social attachments to marriage and the labor force (education and employment) are the principal individual-level pathway mediating the substance abuse/aggression nexus. In the random intercept model, 3.17% of the variation not explained by the individual-level predictor variables is attributable to community-level variation in urban area female-headed households and households receiving welfare. This confirms our hypothesis that social structural conditions of an urban environment differentially expose persons to conditions that predict being arrested for an aggressive crime. Our findings tend to counter the cultural theorists who argue for an indigenous culture of violence in inner-city ghettos and barrios.
Notes
Cites: J Interpers Violence. 2006 Apr;21(4):485-50216501216
Cites: J Adolesc Health. 2001 Jun;28(6):450-711377988
Cites: Biometrics. 1994 Dec;50(4):933-447787006
Cites: J Psychoactive Drugs. 1995 Apr-Jun;27(2):135-437562260
Cites: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1997 May;23(2):249-659143637
PubMed ID
17668345 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and aggression: general population views about causation and responsibility.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203626
Source
J Subst Abuse. 1998;10(2):199-216
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
A. Paglia
R. Room
Author Affiliation
Addiction Research Foundation Division, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. apaglia@arf.org
Source
J Subst Abuse. 1998;10(2):199-216
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aggression - psychology
Alcoholic Intoxication - epidemiology - psychology
Causality
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Public Opinion
Social Problems - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Social Responsibility
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to explore the public's perceptions about alcohol as a causal agent in aggressive behavior, and to assess how these beliefs are associated with notions of responsibility and the excuse-function of alcohol. In a 1995 probability survey, 994 adults across Ontario (50.3% female; mean age = 41.5, SD = 5.9) were asked questions about: alcohol-aggression expectancies; alcohol as an excuse; responsibility; personal drinking behavior; alcohol-aggression victimization; and demographics. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted. Over three-quarters of respondents believed that alcohol is associated with aggression, with females, older respondents, those with less education, and those who do not drink heavily more likely to hold this view. A majority (92%) believed that an intoxicated person is responsible for any behavior, with very little subgroup variation. Analyses showed that the perception of alcohol as a causal agent was not associated with decreased personal responsibility attributions. In fact, the stronger the belief in the alcohol-aggression link, the more likely one was to hold the view that an intoxicated person is responsible for behavior. Beliefs that alcohol causes violence do not translate into the acceptance of intoxication as an excuse. Reasons as to why intoxication does not alleviate responsibility for the drunken actor--a result inconsistent with attribution theory--are discussed. The consistency of these results with the "New Temperance" movement in the United States is also discussed.
PubMed ID
9854704 View in PubMed
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295 records – page 1 of 30.