Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime.
The nationwide multi-generation register was used with many other linked nationwide registers to select participants. All individuals born in 1958-1980 (2,393,765 individuals) were included. Persistent violent offenders (those with a lifetime history of three or more violent crime convictions) were compared with individuals having one or two such convictions, and to matched non-offenders. Independent variables were gender, age of first conviction for a violent crime, nonviolent crime convictions, and diagnoses for major mental disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders.
A total of 93,642 individuals (3.9%) had at least one violent conviction. The distribution of convictions was highly skewed; 24,342 persistent violent offenders (1.0% of the total population) accounted for 63.2% of all convictions. Persistence in violence was associated with male sex (OR 2.5), personality disorder (OR 2.3), violent crime conviction before age 19 (OR 2.0), drug-related offenses (OR 1.9), nonviolent criminality (OR 1.9), substance use disorder (OR 1.9), and major mental disorder (OR 1.3).
The majority of violent crimes are perpetrated by a small number of persistent violent offenders, typically males, characterized by early onset of violent criminality, substance abuse, personality disorders, and nonviolent criminality.
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUDÂ +Â DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5Â years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
A second homicide by a released mentally ill person is a potentially avoidable tragedy that can reduce the prospects of conditional release for other mentally ill offenders.
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and criminological features of single and recidivist homicide offenders with schizophrenia from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation.
Data were extracted from the criminal and clinical records of all people with schizophrenia who had been convicted of a homicide in the Chuvash Republic at any time between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2010. Those convicted of a second homicide offence during the 30 years of the study were compared with those convicted of a single homicide.
Sixteen (10.7%) of 149 homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed a previous homicide. The 16 recidivists included nine offenders who were diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first homicide (after January 1981), three who were diagnosed with schizophrenia only after the first homicide and four who had already been diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of a pre-1981 homicide. Time at risk for recidivists and non-recidivists differed, but the average time back in the community for the non-recidivists just exceeded the average time to second homicide for the recidivists. All the recidivists were men. Living in a rural area and dissocial personality traits were associated with homicide recidivism.
In the Chuvash republic, most of the repeat homicide offences by people with schizophrenia were committed by people residing in rural areas with less access to psychiatric services, which provides indirect evidence for the efficacy of ongoing treatment and supervision in preventing repeat homicides. This area of study is, however, limited by the small numbers of cases and the long follow-up required. International collaborative studies are indicated to provide a more accurate estimate of the rate of recidivist homicide in schizophrenia.
In a group of intact families, we examined the rates and parameters of verbal, physical, and sexual abuse in 35 women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), 34 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), and 33 women without a clinical history (NC); their experience of multiple abuse and its correlation with their SCL-90-R scores; and their reports of abuse of their siblings. Corroboration of abuse was obtained from some parents in each group. Women with BPD suffered more intrafamilial verbal and physical abuse. Whereas AN and NC women experienced relatively rare single events of extrafamilial sexual abuse at an older age, those with BPD suffered repeated intrafamilial sexual abuse at a younger age and also suffered more multiple abuse. All multiply abused women had more psychopathology. Siblings were reported abused in the same proportions as subjects; many parents of BPDs corroborated their daughters' reports of all three forms of abuse.
The aims of this study were to investigate acute and subacute post-traumatic reactions in victims of physical non-domestic violence. A Norwegian sample of 138 physically assaulted victims was interviewed and a questionnaire was completed. The following areas were examined: the frequency and intensity of acute and subacute psychological reactions such as peritraumatic dissociation (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety and depression; the relationship between several psychological reactions; the relationship between psychological reactions and level of physical injury, perceived life threat, and potential of severe physical injury, and the relationship between psychological reactions and socio-demographic variables. The following distress reactions were measured retrospectively: PD, PTSD, and anxiety and depression. Thirty-three per cent of the victims scored as probable PTSD cases according to the Post Traumatic Symptoms Scale 10 (PTSS-10); the corresponding Impact of Event Scale-15 (IES-15) score identified prevalence of 34% respectively. Forty-four per cent scored as cases with probable anxiety and depression, according to the Hopkins Symptom Check List 25 (HSCL-25). Severity of perceived threat predicted higher scores on all measures of psychological reactions. There were no statistically significant differences between acute and subacute groups on PD, PTSS-10, IES-15, IES-22 and HSCL-25 according to measured means (and standard deviations) and occurrence of probable cases and risk level cases. The results showed no connection between severity of physical injury and caseness. The acute psychological impairment that results from assault violence may have a deleterious effect on the mental health of victims.
This study explores the feasibility of adapting Kleinman's concept of explanatory models of illness to the study of youth violence and is conducted within the hermeneutic tradition. Data were collected by interviewing 11 violent adolescents, their parents, and their caregivers. Four types of explanatory models representing the adolescent girls', the adolescent boys', the caregivers', and the parents' understanding of youth violence are found; they correspond sufficiently to Kleinman's concept and establish the feasibility of adapting it to the study of youth violence. The developmental nature of the parents' and adolescents' models makes it feasible to study them by means of hermeneutic methodology. There are some clinically significant discrepancies between the caregivers' and the clients' explanatory models; identifying such discrepancies is an essential step in the process of breaking down barriers to therapeutic communications. Violent adolescents should be encouraged to define their own explanatory models of violence through dialogue with their caregivers.
Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia.
Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours.
Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours.
Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being.
The aim of this study is to examine the possible changes in depressive symptoms related to various adverse experiences, based on a three-year follow-up among adolescents.
All 10(th) graders invited to enter the youth section of the Oslo Health Study 2001 (n = 3,811) constituted a baseline of a longitudinal study. A high level of mental distress (Hscl-10 score = 1.85) according to the different life experiences was compared, at baseline (15 years) and follow-up (18 years).
All adverse experiences were associated with a high Hscl-10 score except parents not living together and death of a close person at 15 and 18 years for boys, and death of a close person at 18 years of age for girls. A development from high Hscl-10 score at baseline to low score at follow up was defined as recovery from mental distress. The proportion of the youth that had a high Hscl-10 score related to reporting adverse life experiences at age 15, followed by a low Hscl-10 score three years later proved to be between 44% and 89% among boys and between 16% and 31% among girls.
From a three year longitudinal perspective the recovery from mental distress is substantial and higher among boys than among girls. However, mental distress seems to persist in a considerable proportion of the adolescents. Consequently, it is insufficient to brush aside traumas and hurt and rely on a time healing process only.
This paper is a report of a study of experiences of domestic violence and coping among ninth-grade (14-17 years old) adolescents.
Domestic violence is commonplace and adolescents are involved in it either as witnesses or victims. Research has shown that different degrees of domestic violence play a major role in adolescent well-being and coping.
A survey of ninth graders in one municipality in Finland was conducted in 2007. A total of 1393 adolescents participated, giving a 78% response rate. The survey included two validated scales, the Violence Scale and the Adolescent Coping Scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine coping among adolescents with and without experience of domestic violence.
Sixty-seven per cent of adolescents had experienced parental symbolic aggression, 55% mild violence and 9% serious violence. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with deterioration in self-rated health, life satisfaction, adolescent giving in when in a conflict situation, approval of corporal punishment and coping by seeking to belong and self-blame. Those with experience of domestic violence did not seek professional help.
Adolescents experiencing domestic violence do not seek help and care providers should therefore take active measures to help them. These adolescents reported that they were satisfied with life, which makes it difficult to identify their need for help. Resources should be developed to identify and help these adolescents.