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The 1% of the population accountable for 63% of all violent crime convictions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259131
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;49(4):559-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Falk, O
Wallinius, M
Lundström, S
Frisell, T
Anckarsäter, H
Kerekes, N
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;49(4):559-71
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aggression - psychology
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime.
The nationwide multi-generation register was used with many other linked nationwide registers to select participants. All individuals born in 1958-1980 (2,393,765 individuals) were included. Persistent violent offenders (those with a lifetime history of three or more violent crime convictions) were compared with individuals having one or two such convictions, and to matched non-offenders. Independent variables were gender, age of first conviction for a violent crime, nonviolent crime convictions, and diagnoses for major mental disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders.
A total of 93,642 individuals (3.9%) had at least one violent conviction. The distribution of convictions was highly skewed; 24,342 persistent violent offenders (1.0% of the total population) accounted for 63.2% of all convictions. Persistence in violence was associated with male sex (OR 2.5), personality disorder (OR 2.3), violent crime conviction before age 19 (OR 2.0), drug-related offenses (OR 1.9), nonviolent criminality (OR 1.9), substance use disorder (OR 1.9), and major mental disorder (OR 1.3).
The majority of violent crimes are perpetrated by a small number of persistent violent offenders, typically males, characterized by early onset of violent criminality, substance abuse, personality disorders, and nonviolent criminality.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24173408 View in PubMed
Less detail

A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107628
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sheilagh Hodgins
Sara Lövenhag
Mattias Rehn
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Maria-Ungdom Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
PubMed ID
23989597 View in PubMed
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A 30-year study of homicide recidivism and schizophrenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108246
Source
Crim Behav Ment Health. 2013 Dec;23(5):347-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Andrei Golenkov
Matthew Large
Olav Nielssen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Chuvash State University, Cheboksary, Russia.
Source
Crim Behav Ment Health. 2013 Dec;23(5):347-55
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Criminals - psychology
Female
Homicide - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Recurrence
Residence Characteristics
Retrospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Schizophrenic Psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
A second homicide by a released mentally ill person is a potentially avoidable tragedy that can reduce the prospects of conditional release for other mentally ill offenders.
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and criminological features of single and recidivist homicide offenders with schizophrenia from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation.
Data were extracted from the criminal and clinical records of all people with schizophrenia who had been convicted of a homicide in the Chuvash Republic at any time between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2010. Those convicted of a second homicide offence during the 30 years of the study were compared with those convicted of a single homicide.
Sixteen (10.7%) of 149 homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed a previous homicide. The 16 recidivists included nine offenders who were diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first homicide (after January 1981), three who were diagnosed with schizophrenia only after the first homicide and four who had already been diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of a pre-1981 homicide. Time at risk for recidivists and non-recidivists differed, but the average time back in the community for the non-recidivists just exceeded the average time to second homicide for the recidivists. All the recidivists were men. Living in a rural area and dissocial personality traits were associated with homicide recidivism.
In the Chuvash republic, most of the repeat homicide offences by people with schizophrenia were committed by people residing in rural areas with less access to psychiatric services, which provides indirect evidence for the efficacy of ongoing treatment and supervision in preventing repeat homicides. This area of study is, however, limited by the small numbers of cases and the long follow-up required. International collaborative studies are indicated to provide a more accurate estimate of the rate of recidivist homicide in schizophrenia.
PubMed ID
23913742 View in PubMed
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[40 percent of high school pupils abuse alcohol. Strong connection with exposure to physical or sexual violence].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129824
Source
Lakartidningen. 2011 Aug 24-30;108(34):1556-9
Publication Type
Article

Abusive relationships in families of women with borderline personality disorder, anorexia nervosa and a control group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193394
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2001 Aug;189(8):522-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
L. Laporte
H. Guttman
Author Affiliation
Allan Memorial Institute, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2001 Aug;189(8):522-31
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Borderline Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Child Abuse, Sexual - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Domestic Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Family Relations
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Nuclear Family - psychology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Factors
Abstract
In a group of intact families, we examined the rates and parameters of verbal, physical, and sexual abuse in 35 women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), 34 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), and 33 women without a clinical history (NC); their experience of multiple abuse and its correlation with their SCL-90-R scores; and their reports of abuse of their siblings. Corroboration of abuse was obtained from some parents in each group. Women with BPD suffered more intrafamilial verbal and physical abuse. Whereas AN and NC women experienced relatively rare single events of extrafamilial sexual abuse at an older age, those with BPD suffered repeated intrafamilial sexual abuse at a younger age and also suffered more multiple abuse. All multiply abused women had more psychopathology. Siblings were reported abused in the same proportions as subjects; many parents of BPDs corroborated their daughters' reports of all three forms of abuse.
PubMed ID
11531204 View in PubMed
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Acute psychological reactions in assault victims of non-domestic violence: peritraumatic dissociation, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79450
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2006;60(6):452-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Johansen Venke A
Wahl Astrid K
Eilertsen Dag Erik
Hanestad Berit R
Weisaeth Lars
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health, Buskerud University College, Drammen, Norway. venke.johansen@isf.uib.no
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2006;60(6):452-62
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Catchment Area (Health)
Crime Victims - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Dissociative Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Emergency Medical Services - utilization
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Severity of Illness Index
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The aims of this study were to investigate acute and subacute post-traumatic reactions in victims of physical non-domestic violence. A Norwegian sample of 138 physically assaulted victims was interviewed and a questionnaire was completed. The following areas were examined: the frequency and intensity of acute and subacute psychological reactions such as peritraumatic dissociation (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety and depression; the relationship between several psychological reactions; the relationship between psychological reactions and level of physical injury, perceived life threat, and potential of severe physical injury, and the relationship between psychological reactions and socio-demographic variables. The following distress reactions were measured retrospectively: PD, PTSD, and anxiety and depression. Thirty-three per cent of the victims scored as probable PTSD cases according to the Post Traumatic Symptoms Scale 10 (PTSS-10); the corresponding Impact of Event Scale-15 (IES-15) score identified prevalence of 34% respectively. Forty-four per cent scored as cases with probable anxiety and depression, according to the Hopkins Symptom Check List 25 (HSCL-25). Severity of perceived threat predicted higher scores on all measures of psychological reactions. There were no statistically significant differences between acute and subacute groups on PD, PTSS-10, IES-15, IES-22 and HSCL-25 according to measured means (and standard deviations) and occurrence of probable cases and risk level cases. The results showed no connection between severity of physical injury and caseness. The acute psychological impairment that results from assault violence may have a deleterious effect on the mental health of victims.
PubMed ID
17162453 View in PubMed
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Adapting the concept of explanatory models of illness to the study of youth violence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162952
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2007 Jul;22(7):791-811
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2007
Author
Páll Biering
Author Affiliation
University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. pb@hi.is
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2007 Jul;22(7):791-811
Date
Jul-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Caregivers - psychology
Feasibility Studies
Female
Humans
Iceland
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology
Male
Models, Psychological
Nursing Methodology Research
Parent-Child Relations
Parents - psychology
Questionnaires
Violence - psychology
Abstract
This study explores the feasibility of adapting Kleinman's concept of explanatory models of illness to the study of youth violence and is conducted within the hermeneutic tradition. Data were collected by interviewing 11 violent adolescents, their parents, and their caregivers. Four types of explanatory models representing the adolescent girls', the adolescent boys', the caregivers', and the parents' understanding of youth violence are found; they correspond sufficiently to Kleinman's concept and establish the feasibility of adapting it to the study of youth violence. The developmental nature of the parents' and adolescents' models makes it feasible to study them by means of hermeneutic methodology. There are some clinically significant discrepancies between the caregivers' and the clients' explanatory models; identifying such discrepancies is an essential step in the process of breaking down barriers to therapeutic communications. Violent adolescents should be encouraged to define their own explanatory models of violence through dialogue with their caregivers.
PubMed ID
17575063 View in PubMed
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Adolescent binge drinking and risky health behaviours: findings from northern Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258349
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Dec 15;133(3):838-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2013
Author
Andrew Stickley
Ai Koyanagi
Roman Koposov
Yury Razvodovsky
Vladislav Ruchkin
Author Affiliation
Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (SCOHOST), Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden. Electronic address: andrew.stickley@sh.se.
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Dec 15;133(3):838-44
Date
Dec-15-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Binge Drinking - complications - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Risk-Taking
Russia - epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Unsafe Sex - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia.
Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours.
Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours.
Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being.
PubMed ID
24080314 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adolescents' adverse experiences and mental health in a prospective perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142470
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Feb;39(1):58-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
O R Haavet
Å. Sagatun
L. Lien
Author Affiliation
Department of General Practice and Community Medicine, Section for General Practice, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway. o.r.haavet@medisin.uio.no
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Feb;39(1):58-63
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Depression - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Life Change Events
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - prevention & control
Mental health
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Sex Offenses - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - complications - epidemiology - psychology
Time Factors
Violence - psychology
Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine the possible changes in depressive symptoms related to various adverse experiences, based on a three-year follow-up among adolescents.
All 10(th) graders invited to enter the youth section of the Oslo Health Study 2001 (n = 3,811) constituted a baseline of a longitudinal study. A high level of mental distress (Hscl-10 score = 1.85) according to the different life experiences was compared, at baseline (15 years) and follow-up (18 years).
All adverse experiences were associated with a high Hscl-10 score except parents not living together and death of a close person at 15 and 18 years for boys, and death of a close person at 18 years of age for girls. A development from high Hscl-10 score at baseline to low score at follow up was defined as recovery from mental distress. The proportion of the youth that had a high Hscl-10 score related to reporting adverse life experiences at age 15, followed by a low Hscl-10 score three years later proved to be between 44% and 89% among boys and between 16% and 31% among girls.
From a three year longitudinal perspective the recovery from mental distress is substantial and higher among boys than among girls. However, mental distress seems to persist in a considerable proportion of the adolescents. Consequently, it is insufficient to brush aside traumas and hurt and rely on a time healing process only.
PubMed ID
20595249 View in PubMed
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Adolescents' experiences of coping with domestic violence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142880
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2010 Jun;66(6):1232-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Sari Lepistö
Päivi Astedt-Kurki
Katja Joronen
Tiina Luukkaala
Eija Paavilainen
Author Affiliation
Sari Lepistö MNSc RN PhD Student Department of Nursing Science, University of Tampere, Finland. sari.j.lepisto@uta.fi
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2010 Jun;66(6):1232-45
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Domestic Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Abstract
This paper is a report of a study of experiences of domestic violence and coping among ninth-grade (14-17 years old) adolescents.
Domestic violence is commonplace and adolescents are involved in it either as witnesses or victims. Research has shown that different degrees of domestic violence play a major role in adolescent well-being and coping.
A survey of ninth graders in one municipality in Finland was conducted in 2007. A total of 1393 adolescents participated, giving a 78% response rate. The survey included two validated scales, the Violence Scale and the Adolescent Coping Scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine coping among adolescents with and without experience of domestic violence.
Sixty-seven per cent of adolescents had experienced parental symbolic aggression, 55% mild violence and 9% serious violence. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with deterioration in self-rated health, life satisfaction, adolescent giving in when in a conflict situation, approval of corporal punishment and coping by seeking to belong and self-blame. Those with experience of domestic violence did not seek professional help.
Adolescents experiencing domestic violence do not seek help and care providers should therefore take active measures to help them. These adolescents reported that they were satisfied with life, which makes it difficult to identify their need for help. Resources should be developed to identify and help these adolescents.
PubMed ID
20546357 View in PubMed
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411 records – page 1 of 42.