The main aim of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions and experiences of bullying: their thoughts about why children and adolescents are bullied, their ideas about why some bully others, and what they believe is important in order to stop bullying. The adolescents were asked about experiences throughout their school years. The study group was comprised of 119 high school students, with a mean age of 17.1 (SD = 1.2). Of the adolescents who reported, 39% indicated that they had been bullied at some time during their school years and 28% said that they had bullied others; 13% reported being both victims and bullies. The ages during which most students had been bullied at school were between 7 and 9 years. Bullies reported that most of the bullying took place when they were 10 to 12 years old. The most common reason as to why individuals are bullied was that they have a different appearance. The participants believe that those who bully suffer from low self-esteem. The most common response to the question "What do you think makes bullying stop?" was that the bully matures. The next most frequent response was that the victim stood up for himself/herself. Those who were not involved in bullying during their school years had a much stronger belief that victims can stand up for themselves than did the victims themselves.
The purpose of this study was to determine if communities in Nunavut that prohibit the importation of alcoholic beverages have less violence relative to communities that allow alcohol importation.
A retrospective cross-sectional study based on community-level records of violent crimes known to the police.
Violence was measured using community-level records of homicide, assault and sexual assault as reported to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 23 communities in Nunavut for the years 1986 to 2006. Crude-rate comparisons were made between wet communities (which allow alcohol importation) and dry communities (which prohibit alcohol importation) and contrasted with national rates for context.
Wet communities in Nunavut recorded rates of violent crime that were higher than the rates recorded by dry communities. Relative to dry communities, wet communities' overall sexual assault rate was 1.48 (95% CI = 1.38-1.60) times higher, the serious assault rate was 2.10 (95% CI = 1.88-2.35) times higher and the homicide rate was 2.88 (95% CI = 1.18-8.84) times higher. Although safer than wet communities, dry communities reported rates of violence that were higher than national rates including a serious assault rate that was double the national rate (3.25 per 1,000 vs. 1.44 per 1,000) and a sexual assault rate that was at least seven times as high as the national rate (7.58 per 1,000 vs. 0.88 per 1,000).
As elsewhere in the Arctic, communities in Nunavut that prohibited alcohol were less violent than those that allowed alcohol importation. Even with prohibition, dry communities recorded rates of violence much greater than the national average.
Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League.
A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among?=?4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (=200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (= 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (= 200 attempts).
There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to reduce alcohol-related problems at sporting events, and it is essential to test prevention strategies to reduce intoxication levels among spectators. This project makes an important contribution not only to the research community, but also to enabling public health officials, decision-makers, authorities, the general public, and the sports community, to implement appropriate evidence-based strategies.
Cites: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Apr 1;129(1-2):110-523102731
Cites: Public Health Rep. 1999 Jul-Aug;114(4):337-4210501134
We investigated the precision of individual risk estimates made using actuarial risk assessment instruments (ARAIs) by discussing some major conceptual issues and then illustrating them by analyzing new data. We used a standard multivariate statistical procedure, logistic regression, to create a new ARAI based on data from a follow-up study of 90 adult male sex offenders. We indexed predictive precision at the group level using confidence intervals for group mean probability estimates, and at the individual level using prediction intervals for individual probability estimates. Consistent with past research, ARAI scores were moderately and significantly predictive of failure in the aggregate, but group probability estimates had substantial margins of error and individual probability estimates had very large margins of error. We conclude that, without major advances in our understanding of the causes of violence, ARAIs cannot be used to estimate the specific probability or absolute likelihood of future violence with any reasonable degree of precision or certainty. The implications for conducting violence risk assessments in forensic mental health are discussed.
The association between psychotic symptoms and violence is unclear, due in part to methodological features of investigations that have examined this question, and in part to the fact that the association likely differs by disorder and treatment conditions. Using data from The Comparative Study of the Prevention of Crime and Violence by Mentally Ill Persons, we examined 128 men with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder discharged from general and forensic psychiatric hospitals in Canada, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. The association between symptoms and aggressive behavior was studied during two 6 month periods when the patients lived in the community. Severe positive and negative symptoms of psychosis, depression, and anxiety were measured at the beginning of each of the 6 month periods. In addition, at the beginning of the second 6 month period changes in symptoms in the previous period were indexed. Aggressive behavior was measured in each 6 month period by reports from patients and from collaterals. During the first 6 months post-discharge, after controlling for the presence of antisocial personality disorder or PCL score and past diagnoses of alcohol/drug abuse/dependence, the presence of a severe positive symptom significantly increased the risk of aggressive behavior. During the second 6 month period, after controlling for antisocial personality disorder or PCL score and self-reported alcohol/drug use, the presence of a severe positive symptom, a TCO symptom, and an increase in TCO symptoms significantly increased the risk of aggressive behavior. Neither depot medications nor obligatory community treatment reduced the risk of aggressive behavior after controlling for the presence of a severe positive symptom and/or TCO symptoms. These findings suggest that, among men with schizophrenia being treated in the community, the presence of severe psychotic symptoms and the development of TCO symptoms are antecedents of aggressive behavior.
Recently, a growing interest in problems at school of peer aggression and victimization was observed. As a result, intervention strategies appropriate for this kind of problem were required. The Norwegian anti-bullying intervention that was developed and evaluated by Olweus (1992) in the region of Bergen was considered to be a good model for other countries to implement interventions against peer aggression within the school environment. It was therefore adapted to the educational settings of other countries. This paper aims to discuss the adaptation processes of the Bergen anti-bullying programme and to give guidelines to advance further programme development. For this, the DFE Sheffield Bullying Project (Smith and Sharp, 1994), the Anti-bullying Intervention in Toronto schools (Pepler et al., 1994) and the Flemish anti-bullying project (Stevens and Van Oost, 1994) were considered in the analyses. Discussion of the adaptation processes of the Bergen model programme revealed that the adapted interventions largely succeeded in incorporating the core components of the Bergen model programme, taking into account the characteristics of the implementation environment. This suggests that for bully/victim interventions, the dilemma of programme fidelity and programme adaptation could be solved adequately. However, from a health promotion perspective, some critical issues for programme improvement were observed. Three suggestions for change were made, indicating that anti-bullying actions at schools may benefit from: (i) a clear overview of the learning objectives, specified per target population; (ii) more attention to parental involvement and family interventions; and (iii) additional information about the adoption processes of the anti-bullying interventions within schools.
The aim of this study was to evaluate psychopharmacological treatment and the length of stay (LOS) of patients with schizophrenia in a maximum-security psychiatric unit. Data were collected from the hospital files of 82 consecutively admitted patients with schizophrenia who were both admitted and discharged between the years 1987 and 2000. Psychotropic medication and LOS at the time of discharge were registered. Ninety-five per cent of the patients received antipsychotic medication. Zuclopenthixol was the most frequent medication, given to 43% of the patients. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was found in 20% of the cases. Twenty-seven per cent of the patients were medicated with doses above the recommended therapeutic dose range. During the study period, there was no change in the administration and number of psychotropics, but there was an increase in the dosage of antipsychotics. However, LOS was unchanged during the same time. This supports other findings, which suggest that there is no clinical benefit of higher antipsychotic dosage. It is suggested that an optimized medication practice could yield beneficiary effects, not only for schizophrenic symptoms, but also for violence in schizophrenic patients.