The present study examined the activity profile, heart rate and metabolic response of small-sided football games for untrained males (UM, n=26) and females (UF, n=21) and investigated the influence of the number of players (UM: 1v1, 3v3, 7v7; UF: 2v2, 4v4 and 7v7). Moreover, heart rate response to small-sided games was studied for children aged 9 and 12 years (C9+C12, n=75), as well as homeless (HM, n=15), middle-aged (MM, n=9) and elderly (EM, n=11) men. During 7v7, muscle glycogen decreased more for UM than UF (28 +/- 6 vs 11 +/- 5%; P90% of HR(max) ranged from 147 +/- 4 (EM) to 162 +/- 2 (UM) b.p.m. and 10.8 +/- 1.5 (UF) to 47.8 +/- 5.8% (EM). Time >90% of HR(max) (UM: 16-17%; UF: 8-13%) and time spent with high speed running (4.1-5.1%) was similar for training with 2-14 players, but more high-intensity runs were performed with few players (UM 1v1: 140 +/- 17; UM 7v7: 97 +/- 5; P
Fear can be problematic for children who come into contact with medical care. This study aimed to illuminate the meaning of being afraid when in contact with medical care, as narrated by children 7-11 years old. Nine children participated in the study, which applied a phenomenological hermeneutic analysis methodology. The children experienced medical care as "being threatened by a monster," but the possibility of breaking this spell of fear was also mediated. The findings indicate the important role of being emotionally hurt in a child's fear to create, together with the child, an alternate narrative of overcoming this fear.
OBJECTIVE: To describe antenatal 'booking' interviews as regards content and illuminate the meaning of the ways midwives and expectant parents relate to each other. DESIGN: Content analysis and phenomenological hermeneutic analysis of transcribed texts from five video-recorded antenatal booking interviews. SETTING: Midwifery clinics at five health centres in the context of Swedish primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Five midwives, five pregnant women (less than 14 weeks pregnant) and two expectant fathers. FINDINGS: A variety of content themes and ways of relating were found. Combined themes of biomedical and obstetric content occurred as frequently as the sum of social, emotional, antenatal care and life-style themes. The midwives' ways of relating formed two main themes; considering and disregarding the uniqueness of the expectant parents. The midwives directed the interview through their choice of content themes and the way they related to the expectant parents. The expectant parents mainly shadowed the midwives' content themes and ways of relating. The expectant fathers seemed like strange visitors in the women's world. Two perspectives of antenatal midwifery care, obstetric and parental, operated alternately and in competition within the interviews. KEY CONCLUSIONS: The content and the ways of relating within the interviews seem to be connected and could be understood in the light of Buber's writings on dialogue. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The findings provide a basis for reflection on the education of midwives and the planning, training and implementation of midwifery care at antenatal 'booking' interviews.
The purpose of the study was to assess the applicability of a new ITKA GSD Basic 250 electrosurgical unit (ESU) to urologic endoscopic surgery, laparoscopic surgery and open urologic surgery, its possible interference with videorecording and stray currents in healthy tissues. A new ITKA GSD Basic 250 ESU (test ESU) was used and compared to conventional ESU (Berchtold Elektrotom 390 as reference ESU). Experimental surgery was carried out on three female pigs, which underwent endoscopic, laparoscopic and open surgery. Altogether 29 patients underwent either endoscopic or open surgery with the test ESU. In experimental surgery, the ideal cutting and coagulation settings of the test ESU were in the range 15-25% for endoscopic surgery. In laparoscopic surgery, tissues were ideally resected and removed at 10-15% power settings. In open experimental surgery, the ideal power settings were 25-30%. In human surgery, the test ESU operated well at 25-35% power settings in endoscopic surgery, while in open surgery on humans the ideal settings were 25-35% in monopolar use and 20-25% in bipolar use. When used for endoscopic operations, the test ESU did not interfere with videorecording. Nor were any adverse effects seen in the surrounding tissues. The patients had neither early nor late complications. Histopathological findings revealed no differences in healing between the test ESU and reference ESU. Experimental and patient surgery showed the test ESU to be both safe and effective. It is suitable to be used in urologic endoscopic surgery, laparoscopic surgery and open urologic surgery. It does not interfere with videorecording or cause harmful stray currents in surrounding tissues. Power can be adjusted linearly and precisely. Low-power operation is also possible.
The College of Family Physicians of Canada uses a simulated office oral examination to test candidates for certification in family medicine. This examination has been highly successful. An analysis of this instrument provides a description of skills required for a certificant of the college. Its basic outline can be used to assess residents' interviewing skills during training and to help prepare them for practice.
Speech and language therapists (SLTs) working with adults who have multiple learning disabilities and complex communication needs often deliver their care via indirect therapy where SLTs train carers to communicate with their clients. Yet, very little is known about how SLTs assess the carers' communication skills prior to the training even though the assessment should be the basis of this indirect therapy.
To explore the level of agreement between Finnish SLTs' assessments of carers as skilful communication partners for adults who have multiple learning disabilities and complex communication needs. To investigate which interaction strategies affect the SLTs' assessments.
Six SLTs with more than 15 years of experience in working with individuals with complex communication needs saw together ten video clips of interaction situations between a carer and an adult who had multiple learning disabilities (aged 17-50 years). The SLTs assessed the carers on a scale from one to ten. The SLTs discussed their selections before giving their final ratings. The data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The unanimity of SLTs' assessment was analysed with a test of Kendall's W. Furthermore, the frequencies of the carers' different communication acts were counted and these counts were compared with the mean of the carers' assessments. These results were further explored with the SLTs' justifications about their assessments.
SLTs did not fully agree on which of the carers were the most skilful interaction partners. Furthermore, the six SLTs were not unanimous about which carers' interaction strategies resulted in skilful communication. However, SLTs assessed those carers higher who used facilitative verbal acts. The carers used these verbal acts to involve themselves in the interests of the client.
This case study showed that Finnish SLTs seem to have different criteria about what is considered skilful communication between carers and clients who have multiple learning disabilities. Even though there might not be a single way of being a skilful interaction partner, this variable can be confusing to carers if they work with several SLTs and each of them offers different professional advice. Therefore, the results suggest a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the carers' interaction skills. In addition to this tool, it appears that SLTs also need further training to be able to perform this multifaceted task.
Communication skills are considered to be a core clinical skill in veterinary medicine and essential for practice success, including outcomes of care for patients and clients. While veterinary schools include communication skills training in their programs, there is minimal knowledge on how best to assess communication competence throughout the undergraduate program. The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the reliability, utility, and suitability of a communication skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Specifically we wanted to (1) identify the greatest source of variability (student, rater, station, and track) within a first-year, four station OSCE using exam scores and scores from videotape review by two trained raters, and (2) determine the effect of different stations on students' communication skills performance. Reliability of the scores from both the exam data and the two expert raters was 0.50 and 0.46 respectively, with the greatest amount of variance attributable to student by station. The percentage of variance due to raters in the exam data was 16.35%, whereas the percentage of variance for the two expert raters was 0%. These results have three important implications. First, the results reinforce the need for communication educators to emphasize that use of communication skills is moderated by the context of the clinical interaction. Second, by increasing rater training the amount of error in the scores due to raters can be reduced and inter-rater reliability increases. Third, the communication assessment method (in this case the OSCE checklist) should be built purposefully, taking into consideration the context of the case.
To evaluate the effects of an information film on making an informed choice regarding Down syndrome screening, and women's knowledge and experiences of information.
Randomized controlled trial including 184 women in the intervention group and 206 controls recruited from maternity units in Stockholm, Sweden. The intervention was an information film presented as a complement to written and verbal information. Data were collected via a questionnaire in gestational week 27. Three different measures were combined to measure informed choice: attitudes towards Down syndrome screening, knowledge about Down syndrome and Down syndrome screening, and uptake of CUB (combined ultrasound and biochemical screening).
In the intervention group 71.5% made an informed choice versus 62.4% in the control group. Women in the intervention group had significantly increased knowledge, and to a greater extent than the control group, experienced the information as being sufficient, comprehensible, and correct.
An information film tended to increase the number of women who made an informed choice about Down syndrome screening. Participants were more satisfied with the information received.
Access to correct, nondirective, and sufficient information is essential when making a choice about prenatal diagnostics. It is essential with equivalent information to all women.
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to describe in detail the electroclinical findings associated with a mutation in the acetylcholine receptor in a Norwegian family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). Furthermore, we compared the clinical features associated with this mutation with those of an Australian family with a different mutation at the same locus, as well as with those of eight Italian families with ADNFLE and without a verified mutation in this gene. METHODS: We obtained medical records from all of the 10 known affected members of the Norwegian family. A personal interview and a clinical neurologic examination were carried out in six of them. Interictal and ictal scalp EEG recordings were obtained in eight and three, respectively, computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) in five, and blood samples for genetic analysis in seven individuals. The clinical features after an insertion of a leucine residue in the alpha4 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are examined. Furthermore, the clinical features that accompany this insertion and the clinical features associated with a missense mutation (Ser248Phe) in the same gene were compared. RESULTS: All the affected individuals had a seizure semiology consistent with frontal lobe seizures. Their seizures started in childhood (mean age, 8 years) and were often misinterpreted as benign nocturnal parasomnias, nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia, or a psychiatric disorder. The affected family members were of normal intellect and showed no abnormalities at neurologic and neuroradiologic examinations. Interictal scalp EEG registrations were mostly normal, ictal scalp EEG registrations in three individuals revealed left frontal low-voltage epileptiform discharges in two, and only shallow arousal preceding the attack in one. Although the seizure susceptibility varied among the affected individuals, the epilepsy course was mostly benign. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ADNFLE, either with the 776ins3 mutation or the Ser248Phe mutation, and those without any recognized mutation in the acetylcholine receptor, have strikingly homogeneous phenotypes, and it seems difficult to separate them on clinical grounds.