Changes in food group consumption and associations with self-rated diet, health, life satisfaction, and mental and physical functioning over 5 years in very old Canadian men: the Manitoba Follow-Up Study.
To identify longitudinal food group consumption trends and the relationship to perceived changes in diet, health, and functioning.
A prospective longitudinal study.
Seven hundred and thirty-six community-dwelling Canadian men (mean age: 2000=79.4 yrs; 2005=84.5 yrs) participating in the Manitoba Follow-up Study.
Self-reported food consumption, self-rated diet and health, life satisfaction, physical and mental functioning from questionnaires completed in 2000 and 2005.
The majority of participants did not consume from all four food groups daily, based on Canada's Food Guide recommendations, with only 8% in 2000 and up to 15% in 2005. However, over a five year period, more men improved their consumption in each food group than declined. An association was found between change in the self-rating of the healthiness of their diet and change in consumption of vegetables and fruit, or grain products. Men whose self-rating of the healthiness of their diet remained high or improved between 2000 and 2005, were 2.15 times more likely (95% CI=1.45, 3.17) to also have increased consumption of vegetables and fruit, and 1.71 times more likely (95% CI=1.51, 2.54) to have increased consumption of grain products, relative to men whose self-rating of the healthiness of their diet declined between 2000 and 2005. Men who consumed more food groups daily had better mental and physical component scores.
Dietary improvements are possible in very old men. Greater daily food group consumption is associated with better mental and physical functioning. Given these positive findings, there is still a need to identify older men who require support to improve their dietary habits as nearly half of the participants consumed two or fewer groups daily.