Studies on long-term mortality after venous thromboembolism (VTE) are sparse.
Using Danish medical databases, we conducted a 30-year nationwide population-based cohort study of 128 223 patients with first-time VTE (1980-2011) and a comparison cohort of 640 760 people from the general population (without VTE) randomly matched by sex, year of birth, and calendar period. The mortality risks for patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) were markedly higher than for the comparison cohort during the first year, especially within the first 30 days (3.0% and 31% versus 0.4%). Using Cox regression, we assessed mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall 30-year MRR was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.53-1.57) for DVT and 2.77 (95% CI, 2.74-2.81) for PE. The 30-day MRR was 5.38 (95% CI, 5.00-5.80) for DVT and 80.87 (95% CI, 76.02-86.02) for PE. Over time, the 30-day MRR was consistently 5- to 6-fold increased for DVT, whereas it improved for PE from 138 (95% CI, 125-153) in 1980 to 1989 to 36.08 (95% CI, 32.65-39.87) in 2000 to 2011. The 1- to 10-year and 11- to 30-year MRRs remained 25% to 40% increased after both DVT and PE but were 3- to 5-fold increased after DVT and 6- to 11-fold increased after PE when VTE was considered the immediate cause of death.
Patients with VTE are at increased risk of dying, especially within the first year after diagnosis, but also during the entire 30 years of follow-up, with VTE as an important cause of death. Although 30-day mortality after DVT remained fairly constant over the last 3 decades, it improved markedly for PE.
Hematological Research Group (C.L., K.F.E., S.K.B., J.-B.H.), Brain and Circulation Research Group (E.B.M.), Department of Clinical Medicine, and Department of Community Medicine (I.N.), University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (L.E.F., K.O.); Division of Internal Medicine (K.F.E., S.K.B., J.-B.H.) and Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology (E.B.M.), University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Haematology (M.T.S.) and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Center (S.R.K.) and Department of Cardiology (K.O.), Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; and Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands (S.C.C.).
Growing evidence supports an association between venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thrombotic diseases (ie, myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke). We aimed to study the association between VTE and future arterial events and to determine the population attributable risk of arterial events by VTE in a large prospective cohort recruited from the general population.
In 1994 to 1995 and 1993 to 1997, 81 687 subjects were included in the Tromsø Study and in the Diet, Cancer and Health Study and followed up to the date of incident venous and arterial events (myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke), death or migration, or to the end of the study period (2010 and 2008, respectively). There were 1208 cases of VTE and 90 subsequent arterial events during a median follow-up of 12.2 years. An association between VTE and future arterial events was found in all women and men aged 65 years. Women
The public health burden of venous thromboembolism, which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is not fully known, and contemporary incidence and mortality estimates are needed. We determined the incidence and case fatality of venous thromboembolism in a general population.
Using the administrative health care databases of the Canadian province of Québec, we identified all incident cases of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism between 2000 and 2009 and classified them as definite or probable venous thromboembolism. We formed 2 patient cohorts, one with definite cases and the other including cases with definite or probable venous thromboembolism that were followed until December 31, 2009.
We identified 67,354 definite and 35,123 probable cases of venous thromboembolism. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates of definite or probable venous thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.23), 0.78 (95% CI, 0.77-0.79), and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.44-0.45) per 1000 person-years, respectively, while for definite venous thromboembolism it was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.89-0.90) per 1000 person-years. The 30-day and 1-year case-fatality rates after definite or probable venous thromboembolism were 10.6% (95% CI, 10.4-10.8) and 23.0% (95% CI, 22.8-23.3), respectively, and were slightly higher among definite cases. The 1-year survival rate was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.46-0.48) for cases with definite or probable venous thromboembolism and cancer, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.93-0.94) for cases with unprovoked venous thromboembolism, and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.83-0.84) for cases with venous thromboembolism secondary to a major risk factor. Similar survival rates were seen for cases with definite venous thromboembolism.
The risk of venous thromboembolism in the general population remains high, and mortality, especially in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism, is substantial.
While the risk for arterial vascular disease has been shown to be influenced by socioeconomic status (SES), there is limited information whether SES also influences the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). To evaluate whether there is an association between SES and VTE incidence. In 1990, all 730,050 inhabitants (379,465 women and 350,585 men) above 25 years of age in the County of Skåne in Sweden were evaluated with regard to age, household income, marital status, country of birth, number of years of residence in Sweden, educational level, and concomitant diseases. The cohort was hereafter prospectively investigated regarding diagnosis of, or death from VTE (deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism ), during 1991-2003. The association between socioeconomic data and concomitant diseases at the baseline investigation 1990 and incidence of VTE during follow-up was examined by Cox proportional hazard models. During the 13 years prospective follow-up, 10,212 women and 7,922 men were diagnosed with VTE. In both genders, age above 40 years at baseline, low income, single status, and a lower level of education were associated with an increased risk of VTE. However, both men and women born outside of Sweden have a lower risk for VTE during follow-up, however. Age above 40 years, low income, single marital status, and lower level of education were independently related to an increased risk of VTE diagnosis during 13 years of prospective follow-up.