To evaluate the technical procedures and the post-operative survival of patients having been operated for renal cell cancer with cavoatrial tumour thrombus (RCC-T).
Between 1990 and 2000 the cardiac unit at Helsinki University Central Hospital operated on seven patients for RCC-T. A cardiac surgeon along with a urologist, performed all seven operations using sternolaparotomy (either midline or Chevron incision) with cardiopulmonary bypass.
The average duration of the operations was eight hours (range 6-11 hours) and the average perfusion time was 118 minutes (range 35-206). Hypothermic circulatory arrest was used for one patient with an arrest time of 31 minutes. Only with one patient could the cavotomy be closed directly. In four patients a cava resection was performed and closed either with a pericardium patch or a Gore-Tex prosthesis. In two patients the cava was ligated below the renal veins. During the post-operative intensive care, there were two deaths. Of the remaining patients, five were alive after six months, four after 12 months, three after six years and one patient is still alive after 12 years of follow-up.
In agreement with previously published results, although peri-operative mortality is relatively high with RCC-T patients, long-term post-operative survival is possible.
The postcava tumor thrombosis had about 1/3 of patients with renal cell carcinoma at the initial examination. Reconstructive interventions were performed on the postcava for 38 patients (24 men, 14 women). The postcava thrombectomy was applied in 15 patients. The thrombectomy with postcava resection were carried out in 13 patients and plasty- in 6, prosthetics-in 4. An actuarial 3-year or 5-year survival rate of patients consisted of 59.4% and 42.2%. The performance of reconstructive interventions on postcava with its involvement was justified and provided satisfactory results in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
The authors carried out comparative assessment of efficacy of cava filters (CF) for prevention of pulmonary artery thromboembolism in patients presenting with iliofemoral thrombosis with flotation of thrombi, as well as analysed complications in the remote postimplantation period. A total of 266 patients were examined within the terms from 1 month to 10 years after CF implantation. Depending on the type of the implanted device, all patients were subdivided into 3 groups: group 1 (n=65) consisted of patients with one-level CF, group 2 (n=112) comprised those with "sandglass" and "shuttle" type two-level cava filters, and group 3 (n=89) was composed of patients with the implanted CF "TrapEase" and "OptEase". In the remote period relapsed PATE was revealed in 5.2% of cases. Embolism in the CF was noted in 9.3% of cases, with the incidence rate of this complication not depending on the type of the implanted device. However, total occlusion of the inferior vena cava after embolism was observed 2 times more often in patients of the 2nd and 3rd group. In the first group recanalization of the intrafilter space occurred in one third of cases. Chronic occlusion of the inferior vena cava was revealed in 13.9% of cases, most frequently in group 2. Total occlusion of the inferior vena cava with the development of inferior vena cava syndrome was diagnosed in 24.1% of patients with thrombotic lesion below the level of renal veins confluence. This complication was associated with both characteristics of CF and technical errors of implantation, and was also encountered more frequently in group 2.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of symptomatic thrombotic events among Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to evaluate the frequency and the risk factors associated with renal vein thrombosis in those patients. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with SLE, 51 (94.4%) females, were involved in this study. All of them were submitted for abdominal sonography, chest X-ray, echocardiography, and Doppler of renal, abdominal and lower limb veins, with examination of data on clinical and laboratory profile. Abdominal CT, brain MRI, MRI both hips, CT chest and pulmonary scintigraphy were used when needed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (29.6%) were diagnosed with symptomatic thrombotic events. Eight patients had more than one type of thrombosis. Two patients (3.7%) were diagnosed by Doppler as having renal vein thrombosis (RVT). This was confirmed by abdominal CT. One of them presented with nephrotic syndrome, graded by renal biopsy as World Health Organization (WHO) class V, and had positive anticardiolipin antibodies (ACL). The other patient had RVT and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis, nephrotic syndrome, positive ACL, and died before renal biopsy was performed. Both of them were without history of peripheral thrombotic events. One patient was diagnosed with IVC thrombosis, lupus nephritis grade II, positive ACL, and diagnosed by abdominal CT. One patient was diagnosed with portal vein thrombosis and had positive ACL. One patient with retinal vessel thrombosis and positive ACL. Four patients had deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Recurrent miscarriages were reported in 4 patients (7.4%), skin ulcerations in 3 (5.6%), avascular necrosis of the hips in 4 (7.4%), stroke in 1 (1.9%), and pulmonary hypertension in 2 patients (3.7%). CONCLUSION: Sixteen SLE patients (29.6%) were diagnosed with symptomatic thrombotic events. RVT was detected in 2 patients representing 3.7% of all patients, and 12.5% of patients with thrombosis. Both patients with RVT presented with nephrotic syndrome.
The authors assessed efficacy and safety of the operation of plication of deep veins of lower extremities, pelvic veins, and the inferior vena cava as a method of preventing fatal pulmonary artery thromboembolism. A total of 48 patients were operated on. Of these, 23 patients belonged to traumatological-and-orthopaedical cohort, 3 to general surgical cohort, 4 to gynaecological, and 18 to vascular cohort (isolated deep vein thrombosis). The length of the floating head of the thrombus varied from 2 to 10 cm. The presence of a floating thrombus in traumatological, surgical and gynaecological patients, regardless of the length of the floating part was an absolute indication for thrombectomy and venous plication. Vascular patients were operated on in accordance with the National Guidelines (with the length of the thrombus floating portion of not less than 4 cm). In all cases, surgical management envisaged direct and indirect thrombectomy. Plication was always performed above the level of venotomy. It was shown that thrombectomy combined with plication of major veins is a reliable and safe method of prophylaxis, being in some cases the only possible method of preventing fatal pulmonary artery thromboembolism. The operation of plication makes it possible not to cancel a scheduled surgical intervention in patients with a detected floating thrombus of major veins. The operation of thrombectomy and plication above the level of the floating head of the thrombus may be considered an operation of choice in the conditions where there is no possibility to use endovascular methods of treatment (implantation of a cava filter, endovascular catheter thrombectomy), as well as in pregnant women. Restoration of the venous lumen occurs at safe terms spontaneously, not requiring repeat surgical intervention. Simultaneous plication of the vein does not complicate the course of the postoperative period of the main surgical intervention. Thrombectomy and plication do not lead to the development of severe chronic venous insufficiency.
A 52-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma was treated with surgery and chemotherapy (vinblastine). Ukrain was administered after tumor progression to the vena cava inferior and appearance of liver metastasis. The drug induced a complete remission, which has lasted 32 months since the first therapy course.