Skip header and navigation

Refine By

44 records – page 1 of 5.

Approaches to risk assessment of automotive engine exhausts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25393
Source
IARC Sci Publ. 1990;(104):277-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
M. Törnqvist
L. Ehrenberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Radiobiology, University of Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
IARC Sci Publ. 1990;(104):277-87
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects
Animals
Cricetinae
Humans
Incidence
Models, Biological
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Rats
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban health
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Contributions of alkenes to cancer risk from urban air pollution were estimated on the basis of radiation dose equivalent of target dose. The latter was inferred from the incremental carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) level in urban areas, the ratio of epoxide-haemoglobin adducts to COHb levels in smokers and the alkenes/CO level ratios in cigarette smoke and urban air. This model predicts some 200 and 5 cancer cases annually in Sweden from ethene and propene, respectively. This indicates that the risk from alkenes is of the same order of magnitude as that from the particulate fraction of the pollution.
PubMed ID
1699889 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association of long-term exposure to community noise and traffic-related air pollution with coronary heart disease mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125348
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2012 May 1;175(9):898-906
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2012
Author
Wen Qi Gan
Hugh W Davies
Mieke Koehoorn
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2012 May 1;175(9):898-906
Date
May-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - etiology - mortality
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Noise - adverse effects
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
In metropolitan areas, road traffic is a major contributor to ambient air pollution and the dominant source of community noise. The authors investigated the independent and joint influences of community noise and traffic-related air pollution on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period (January 1994-December 1998) and a 4-year follow-up period (January 1999-December 2002). Individuals who were 45-85 years of age and resided in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known CHD at baseline were included (n = 445,868). Individual exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollutants, including black carbon, particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide, were estimated at each person's residence using a noise prediction model and land-use regression models, respectively. CHD deaths were identified from the provincial death registration database. After adjustment for potential confounders, including traffic-related air pollutants or noise, elevations in noise and black carbon equal to the interquartile ranges were associated with 6% (95% confidence interval: 1, 11) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 1, 8) increases, respectively, in CHD mortality. Subjects in the highest noise decile had a 22% (95% confidence interval: 4, 43) increase in CHD mortality compared with persons in the lowest decile. These findings suggest that there are independent effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution on CHD mortality.
PubMed ID
22491084 View in PubMed
Less detail

Associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for stroke in Edmonton, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166990
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(9):689-700
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Paul J Villeneuve
Li Chen
Dave Stieb
Brian H Rowe
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Division, Environmental Contaminants Bureau, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave. W. 3rd Floor, 3-022 PL4903C, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0K9. Paul_Villeneuve@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(9):689-700
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada
Carbon Monoxide - toxicity
Cerebral Hemorrhage - chemically induced
Emergency Medical Services - statistics & numerical data
Hospital Departments
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide - toxicity
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Seasons
Stroke - chemically induced - epidemiology - etiology
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Inconsistent results have been obtained from studies that have examined the relationship between air pollution and hospital visits for stroke. We undertook a time-stratified case-crossover study to evaluate associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for stroke among the elderly according to stroke type, season, and sex. Analyses are based on a total of 12,422 stroke visits among those 65 years of age and older in Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for SO(2), NO(2), PM(2.5), PM(10), CO and O(3) were estimated using data from fixed-site monitoring stations. Particulate matter data were only available from 1998 onwards. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals in relation to an increase in the interquartile range (IQR) of each pollutant. ORs were adjusted for the effects of temperature and relative humidity. We found no association between outdoor measures of air pollution and all stroke visits. In contrast, elevated risks were observed between levels of air pollution and acute ischemic stroke between April and September. During this season, the ORs associated with an increase in the IQR of the 3-day average for CO and NO(2) were 1.32 (95% CI = 1.09-1.60) and 1.26 (95% CI = 1.09-1.46), respectively. CO exposures in the same season, lagged 1 day, were associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke with ORs was 1.20 (95% CI = 1.00-1.43). Our results suggest it is possible that vehicular traffic, which produces increased levels of NO(2) and CO, contributes to an increased incidence of emergency department visits for stroke.
PubMed ID
17048082 View in PubMed
Less detail

Associations of ambient air pollution with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalization and mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116489
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2013
Author
Wen Qi Gan
J Mark FitzGerald
Chris Carlsten
Mohsen Sadatsafavi
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Great Neck, NY 11021, USA. wgan@nshs.edu
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Date
Apr-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - mortality
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Ambient air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies to support this assertion.
To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to elevated traffic-related air pollution and woodsmoke pollution with the risk of COPD hospitalization and mortality.
This population-based cohort study included a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period. All residents aged 45-85 years who resided in Metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known COPD at baseline were included in this study (n = 467,994). Residential exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (black carbon, particulate matter
PubMed ID
23392442 View in PubMed
Less detail

Asthma incidence in children growing up close to traffic: a registry-based birth cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261662
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12:91
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Anna Lindgren
Emilie Stroh
Jonas Björk
Kristina Jakobsson
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12:91
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Asthma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Nitrogen Oxides - toxicity
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Recent reviews conclude an association between traffic-related pollution and incidence of asthma in children, but not all studies agree. Studies have almost exclusively relied on parental-reported symptoms or parental-reported diagnoses of asthma and wheeze. Our aim was to investigate if traffic exposure is associated with higher incidence of early onset asthma, using registry-based outcome data.
We investigated a birth cohort in southern Sweden, consisting of N = 26,128 children with outcome and exposure data (born July 2005-2010). Of these children, N = 7898 had additional covariate information. The cohort was followed to the end of 2011.Traffic intensity, and dispersion-modeled concentrations of NOX (100×100 m grid), at residential addresses, were linked with registry data on dispensed asthma medication (the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register), and hospital and primary health care diagnoses of bronchiolitis, obstructive bronchitis and asthma (The Scania Health Care Register).Covariate information was obtained from questionnaires distributed to parents at Child Health Care-centre visits, eight months after birth. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for the statistical analyses.
Living in close proximity to a road with =8640 cars/day (compared to 0-8640 cars/day), was not associated with higher incidence of first purchase of inhaled ß2-agonist (adjusted hazard ratio (adj.HR) = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-1.0); third year purchase of inhaled ß2-agonist (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9); bronchiolitis (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), obstructive bronchitis (adj.HR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.9-1.2), or asthma (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6- 0.9). Similar results were found for inhaled corticosteroids, and in relation to NOX.
Traffic-related exposure was not associated with higher incidence of asthma medication, or diagnoses of asthma, bronchiolitis, or obstructive bronchitis, in children 0-6 years in southern Sweden. This may depend on the low levels of traffic pollution in the area, mainly well below the WHO-guideline for NO2.
Notes
Cites: Epidemiology. 2000 Mar;11(2):199-20811021620
Cites: Eur Respir J. 2002 Apr;19(4):690-811998999
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1995 Jan 19;332(3):133-87800004
Cites: Clin Exp Allergy. 2005 May;35(5):612-815898983
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006 Mar;60(3):234-4116476754
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2007 Jan;64(1):8-1616912084
Cites: Int J Health Geogr. 2007;6:1917547740
Cites: Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007 Jul;16(7):726-3516897791
Cites: Epidemiology. 2008 May;19(3):401-818379426
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Oct;116(10):1433-818941591
Cites: Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:219154599
Cites: Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:2519419561
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 May;117(5):839-4419478970
Cites: BMC Med Res Methodol. 2009;9:5619635144
Cites: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Feb;66(2):187-9819826799
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Feb;118(2):284-9020123607
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Mar 15;181(6):596-60319965811
Cites: Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010 Feb;21(1 Pt 1):22-819788536
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):1021-620371422
Cites: Pediatr Pulmonol. 2011 Jan;46(1):1-1720963782
Cites: Pediatrics. 2011 Apr;127(4):e913-2021422091
Cites: Clin Exp Allergy. 2011 Aug;41(8):1108-1521481023
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2011;11:45021658213
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2011;11:89122114765
Cites: Respirology. 2012 Aug;17(6):887-9822672711
Cites: Epidemiology. 2013 Jan;24(1):54-6123222555
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2013 Jan;77:106-1723219166
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Mar;121(3):387-9223221880
Cites: Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jan;73(1):212-823345602
PubMed ID
24160449 View in PubMed
Less detail

Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282459
Source
Environ Res. 2017 Jan;152:308-314
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Alexander M Zakharenko
Ayse Basak Engin
Valery V Chernyshev
Vladimir V Chaika
Sergey M Ugay
Ramin Rezaee
Gholamreza Karimi
Vladimir A Drozd
Anna V Nikitina
Sergey F Solomennik
Olga R Kudryavkina
Liu Xin
Yuan Wenpeng
Manolis Tzatzarakis
Aristidis M Tsatsakis
Kirill S Golokhvast
Source
Environ Res. 2017 Jan;152:308-314
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Animals
Automobiles
Basophils - drug effects - immunology
Inflammation - chemically induced - immunology
Male
Mice
Particulate Matter - toxicity
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - toxicity
Russia
Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed.
PubMed ID
27833058 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cancer of the mouth and pharynx, occupation and exposure to chemical agents in Finland [in 1971-95].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157236
Source
Int J Cancer. 2008 Aug 1;123(3):653-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-2008
Author
Laura Tarvainen
Pentti Kyyrönen
Timo Kauppinen
Eero Pukkala
Author Affiliation
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. laura.tarvainen@fimnet.fi
Source
Int J Cancer. 2008 Aug 1;123(3):653-9
Date
Aug-1-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Carcinogens - toxicity
Dust
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hydrocarbons - toxicity
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Mouth Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Multivariate Analysis
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Pesticides - toxicity
Pharyngeal Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology - etiology
Poisson Distribution
Prevalence
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Solvents - toxicity
Tanning
Textiles - toxicity
Time Factors
Tongue Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology - etiology
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
The objective of this article was to find associations between cancer of the mouth and pharynx, occupation and chemical exposure. A cohort of Finns born between 1906 and 1945 was followed-up for 46.8 (21.5 in males and 25.3 in females) million person-years during 1971-95. Incident cases of cancer of the mouth and pharynx (n = 2,708) were identified in a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. The Census occupations in 1970 were converted to chemical exposures with a job-exposure matrix (FINJEM). Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated as the product of prevalence, level and duration of the exposure. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each of the 393 occupations, and for CE categories of the 43 chemical agents, using total Finnish population as reference. Relative risks (RR) comparing various CE-categories with unexposed ones were defined for selected agents by Poisson regression analysis. Elevated SIRs were observed among lawyers, authors, journalists, performing artists, musicians, electronics and telefitters, painters (building), building hands, dockers, unskilled labourers and hotel porters in males and private secretaries, dressmakers, shoemakers and cobblers, waiters, pursers and stewardesses in females. The multivariate analyses showed high RRs for high exposure to aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, pesticides and alcohol. In conclusion, occupations with high SIRs were mostly the ones with high consumption of alcohol. Exposure to solvents and possibly to pesticides, engine exhaust, textile dust and leather dust may increase the risk of cancer of mouth and pharynx.
PubMed ID
18470913 View in PubMed
Less detail

Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257180
Source
Environ Res. 2014 Aug;133:49-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Mette Sørensen
Pernille Lühdorf
Matthias Ketzel
Zorana J Andersen
Anne Tjønneland
Kim Overvad
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Author Affiliation
Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address: mettes@cancer.dk.
Source
Environ Res. 2014 Aug;133:49-55
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Brain Ischemia - epidemiology - etiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Noise - adverse effects
Stroke - etiology - mortality
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects.
PubMed ID
24906068 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparative risk analysis of dioxins in fish and fine particles from heavy-duty vehicles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158590
Source
Risk Anal. 2008 Feb;28(1):127-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Olli Leino
Marko Tainio
Jouni T Tuomisto
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute of Finland.
Source
Risk Anal. 2008 Feb;28(1):127-40
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Diet
Dioxins - toxicity
Finland
Fishes
Humans
Meat - standards
Motor Vehicles
Risk assessment
Urban Population
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Dioxins and airborne fine particles are both environmental health problems that have been the subject of active public debate. Knowledge on fine particles has increased substantially during the last 10 years, and even the current, lowered levels in the Europe and in the United States appear to be a major public health problem. On the other hand, dioxins are ubiquitous persistent contaminants, some being carcinogens at high doses, and therefore of great concern. Our aim was to (a) quantitatively analyze the two pollutant health risks and (b) study the changes in risk in view of the current and forthcoming EU legislations on pollutants. We performed a comparative risk assessment for both pollutants in the Helsinki metropolitan area (Finland) and estimated the health effects with several scenarios. For primary fine particles: a comparison between the present emission situation for heavy-duty vehicles and the new fine particle emission standards set by the EU. For dioxins: an EU directive that regulates commercial fishing of Baltic salmon and herring that exceed the dioxin concentration limit set for fish meat, and a derogation (= exemption) from the directive for these two species. Both of these two decisions are very topical issues and this study estimates the expected changes in health effects due to these regulations. It was found that the estimated fine particle risk clearly outweighed the estimated dioxin risk. A substantial improvement to public health could be achieved by initiating reductions in emission standards; about 30 avoided premature deaths annually in the study area. In addition, the benefits of fish consumption due to omega-3 exposure were notably higher than the potential dioxin cancer risk. Both regulations were instigated as ways of promoting public health.
PubMed ID
18304111 View in PubMed
Less detail

44 records – page 1 of 5.