INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to quantify the impact of different dietary factors on the mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. METHODS: Relative risks and knowledge on the distribution of different dietary factors were used to estimate etiological fractions. RESULTS: It is estimated that an intake of fruit and vegetables and saturated fat as recommended would prevent 12 and 22%, respectively, of deaths from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. An intake of fish among those at high risk for ischaemic heart disease, would lead to a 26% lower mortality, while alcohol intake among abstainers would have no significant quantitative effect. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that changes in dietary habits according to current recommendations would have an impact on public health in Denmark.
Long-term care (LTC) homes plan menus based on Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations for older adults. To determine whether recommended CFG servings and nutrients were being provided, we analyzed the menu of a large LTC facility in a metropolitan area and compared our analysis with a similar one conducted in 2000.
A full week's menu from a large Saskatoon LTC facility was analyzed and compared with CFG and recent Dietary Recommended Intake nutrient recommendations. The menu was analyzed using The Food Processor SQL. The 2011 menu was compared with the similar 2000 menu analysis to permit an evaluation of changes over a decade.
The 2011 menu demonstrated a significant improvement in servings of vegetables and fruit (4.6 to 7.2 servings). Servings of grain products had declined from 4.9 to 3.6 and servings of milk and alternatives had declined from 2.4 to 1.2 since 2000. Servings of meat and alternatives, total carbohydrate, and protein were not significantly different. Foods on the 2011 menu were lower in fat and higher in dietary fibre and offered more vitamins and minerals.
Greater attention to the planning of LTC menus may explain improvements in the 2011 LTC menu. The current menu, however, needs to overcome the challenges that prevent it from meeting CFG recommendations for older adults.
The aim of the present study was to compare the dietary intake and the levels of traditional cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in edentulous middle-aged individuals and individuals of the same age and sex who still had natural teeth. The study was performed within the framework of the MONICA-project. Population registers were used to sample randomly 1287 men and 1330 women aged 25-64 yr. Data were collected from a mailed questionnaire, blood analyses, registrations of blood pressure and anthropometric measures. The estimated daily energy intake did not differ between the two groups, but edentulous men and women ate more sweet snacks compared to those who still had teeth. Edentulous men also ate less fruits, vegetables and fibre and edentulous women ate more fat than dentates. Edentulous men and women were more obese and had lower serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations than those with remaining teeth. Edentulous women also had significantly higher concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum than dentate women. Edentulous men and women were more often regular smokers, but not snuff users, than dentates of the same age and sex. Thus, the presence of two or more cardiovascular risk factors was more common in edentulous individuals than in those who still had natural teeth. In summary, these results support the hypothesis that edentulous middle-aged individuals have a more unfavourable risk factor profile for CVD. Counselling on balanced dietary habits and non-smoking given by dental personnel to orally diseased patients--recommendations given to improve resistance to dental caries or periodontitis--might therefore improve general health and possibly also improve risk factors for CVD.
BACKGROUND: Danish adolescents have poor dietary habits compared to current recommendations. The present study aimed to develop a recommended food intake pattern for adolescents consistent with Danish Dietary Guidelines (DDG), Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) and dietary preferences. METHODS: The nutrient content of a food intake pattern consistent with DDG was calculated using dietary intake data from a random sample of 11-15-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 70). A recommended food intake pattern was modelled to meet NNR. The discretionary energy allowance was calculated as the difference between the total energy level and the energy needed to meet recommended nutrient needs. The flexibility of the recommended food intake pattern was tested against various energy requirements and with the inclusion of basic foods with higher sugar and/or fat content. RESULTS: The developed food intake pattern meets all nutrient goals except for vitamin D. At low energy requirements, the intake of iron and selenium is of concern. To fulfil nutrient recommendations, half of the bread/cereals and vegetables consumed should be fibre-rich, and fats should be of plant origin. CONCLUSIONS: The recommended food intake pattern meets most nutrient recommendations and makes it possible to advise on discretionary energy.
To develop simple scales to measure a Chinese immigrant's adoption of Western eating patterns (dietary acculturation).
Data are from 244 less-acculturated women of Chinese ethnicity living in Seattle, Wash, and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Interviewers collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation indices, items that reflect Western and Chinese dietary behavior, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fat.
Analysis of variance and linear regression analyses examined associations among dietary measures and acculturation variables, controlling for age, education, and city of residence.
We developed 2 scales to assess dietary acculturation: the Western Dietary Acculturation Scale and the Chinese Dietary Acculturation Scale, measuring Western and Chinese eating behavior, respectively. Although the population in this study was a less-acculturated sample, most participants reported some Western dietary practices, such as drinking milk (78%), eating cheese (78%), eating at Western fast-food restaurants (56%), and eating between meals (72%). Younger, highly educated women employed outside the home had the highest Western dietary acculturation scores (P
To investigate whether diet has a role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC).
MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2006 for articles on the relationship between diet and CRC using the key words colorectal cancer and folic acid, calcium, vitamin D, red meat, or fibre. Evidence that these factors are associated with CRC came from case-control and prospective cohort studies and some clinical trials.
Whether red meat is a culprit in causing CRC remains unanswered, although any effect it might have is likely moderate and related to processing or cooking. The effect of dietary fibre on risk of CRC has also been difficult to determine because fibre intake is generally low. Evidence that folic acid, calcium, and vitamin D reduce risk of CRC is stronger. In particular, recent research indicates that calcium and vitamin D might act together, rather than separately, to reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas. There might also be an interaction between low folate levels and high alcohol consumption and CRC.
Before dispensing dietary advice, physicians should understand the potential benefits and harm of specific components of various foods. People might be able to reduce their risk of CRC by increasing their vitamin and mineral levels through eating more vegetables and fruit. Multivitamin and mineral supplements can complement a healthy diet.
BACKGROUND: Dietary treatment plays an important role in prevention of coronary heart disease. In Norway as in other European countries, patients with established coronary heart disease are advised to follow a cholesterol-lowering diet. However, epidemiological observations have suggested that Mediterranean and other diets may have cardioprotective characteristics beyond their effects on serum total and LDL cholesterol levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We describe the results of randomised, controlled clinical trials that have investigated the effect of diet on secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Diets characterised by high contents of oleic acid (18: 1n-9), alpha-linolenic acid (18: 3n-3) and fish or fish oil and near-vegetarian diets have reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. INTERPRETATION: Several characteristics of the Mediterranean diet seem to have additional anti-atherothrombogenic effects beyond those observed with the usually recommended cholesterol-lowering diet. We ask whether Norwegian dietary recommendations for secondary prevention, should emphasise more strongly the type of fat used and fruit and vegetable intake, in line with the principles of the Mediterranean diet. Such dietary advice should be incorporated into the medical treatment given to all patients with coronary heart disease, regardless of their lipid profile.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether diet is an independent determinant for total homocysteine (tHcy) levels. DESIGN: Data on background variables was collected by questionnaire interviews, food intake by one 24 h recall and tHcy levels in a blood sample in 310 healthy men (mean age, 38 y). SETTING: Two oil producing platforms in the Norwegian sector in the north sea. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean (s.d.) and median tHcy levels were 10.4 (2.9) mumol/L and 9.9 mumol/L, respectively. In a covariance analysis, mean adjusted plasma tHcy decreased by 7-21% from no intake to highest category of intake of bread, vegetables, and skimmed milk, and increased by 8-9% from less than 30% to above 35% energy from fat, and from no intake to one liter or more for coffee. Smokers had a lower intake of cereals, bread vegetables and fruits, but ate more fat and meat. Thus, smoking may have an indirect effect on the tHcy level through its effect on diet. In a multiple regression model, bread and vegetables were negatively associated with tHcy, while fat was positively associated. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that changes in diet may be an important means to lower the tHcy level in the overall population, and that dietary advice should be considered in subjects diagnosed with elevated tHcy levels.
The paper describes dietary changes and related nutrition policies and interventions in Finland since the 1960s. Dietary changes are interpreted from the lifestyle perspective, in which food consumption patterns are assumed to be formed by the interplay of individual choices and structural chances, such as socioeconomic and cultural conditions. Finland can demonstrate a success story when it comes to decreased use of dairy fats and increased use of vegetables and fruit. However, the prevalence of overweight has increased. Nutrition policies and interventions together with sociocultural factors have supported the shift towards healthy nutrition. The same factors have promoted overweight, as well.
The Nordic and Swedish Nutrition Recommendations emphasize the balance between macronutrients in the diet. The amount of saturated and total fat should be limited to c. 10 %energy and 30 %energy, respectively, and the amount of total carbohydrates should be 55-60 %energy. Data from the first Swedish national dietary survey in 1989 show that the average diet is too high in fat, especially saturated fat (36-37 %energy and 16 %energy, respectively) while the content of total carbohydrates and dietary fibre is too low. However, parts of the population consume a diet that meets the recommendation for a particular macronutrient. A comparison of subjects with a low or high intake of total fat and saturated fat, dietary fibre or fruit and vegetables show some common trends with respect to the characteristics of a dietary pattern equal or close to the recommendations, e.g. more frequent consumption of fruit and vegetables and a lower consumption of some fat-rich foods, such as spreads, cheese and sausages.