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50 years of screening in the Nordic countries: quantifying the effects on cervical cancer incidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257546
Source
Br J Cancer. 2014 Aug 26;111(5):965-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-26-2014
Author
S. Vaccarella
S. Franceschi
G. Engholm
S. Lönnberg
S. Khan
F. Bray
Author Affiliation
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon cedex 08, France.
Source
Br J Cancer. 2014 Aug 26;111(5):965-9
Date
Aug-26-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Early Detection of Cancer - methods
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Mass Screening - methods
Papillomavirus Infections - epidemiology
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology - virology
Abstract
Nordic countries' data offer a unique possibility to evaluate the long-term benefit of cervical cancer screening in a context of increasing risk of human papillomavirus infection.
Ad hoc-refined age-period-cohort models were applied to the last 50-year incidence data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to project expected cervical cancer cases in a no-screening scenario.
In the absence of screening, projected incidence rates for 2006-2010 in Nordic countries would have been between 3 and 5 times higher than observed rates. Over 60,000 cases or between 41 and 49% of the expected cases of cervical cancer may have been prevented by the introduction of screening in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Our study suggests that screening programmes might have prevented a HPV-driven epidemic of cervical cancer in Nordic countries. According to extrapolations from cohort effects, cervical cancer incidence rates in the Nordic countries would have been otherwise comparable to the highest incidence rates currently detected in low-income countries.
PubMed ID
24992581 View in PubMed
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ABO and Rh blood groups in relation to ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer risk among the population of South-East Siberia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118032
Source
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(10):5091-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Arseniy E Yuzhalin
Anton G Kutikhin
Author Affiliation
Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases under Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Kemerovo, Russian Federation.
Source
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(10):5091-6
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
ABO Blood-Group System - adverse effects
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Prognosis
Rh-Hr Blood-Group System - adverse effects
Risk factors
Siberia - epidemiology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
There is a large amount of evidence that the ABO blood group system may play a role in disease etiology. A relationship between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and cancer risk has been demonstrated in a number of studies. However, in relation to gynecological malignancies, these findings are inconsistent and contradictory.
To perform a case-control study for analysis of the distribution of ABO and Rh blood antigens among women from South-East Siberia who suffered from ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer, and to assess the potential role of these antigens in carcinogenesis.
A total of 1,163 cases with ovarian cancer (n=551), endometrial cancer (n=440) and cervical cancer (n=172) were involved in the study. The control group was formed from 22,581 female blood donors. Blood groups were determined through patients medical records and blood donor records. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The blood group O was defined as the referent group, as it has the greatest frequency in the populations of Southern Siberia. P values less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.
We found that carriage of non-O blood types increased the risk of ovarian cancer by 40-60%, and the magnitude of this relationship was strongest in women with the AB (IV) blood group. Carriage of the A (II) blood group strongly correlated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in premenopausal, but not in postmenopausal women. No statistically significant correlations were obtained for endometrial cancer and cervical cancer. Additionally, we did not observe a relationship between Rhesus factor and cancer risk.
We suggest that carriage of non-O blood groups may elevate risk of ovarian cancer and can play a role in its development.
PubMed ID
23244116 View in PubMed
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Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: the presence of human papillomavirus and the method of detection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18218
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003 Oct;82(10):960-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Sonia Andersson
Barbro Larson
Anders Hjerpe
Claes Silfverswärd
Jan Sällström
Erik Wilander
Eva Rylander
Author Affiliation
Institute for Clinical Science, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. sonia.andersson@telia.com
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003 Oct;82(10):960-5
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology - etiology - virology
Adult
Age Factors
Contraceptives, Oral
DNA, Viral - analysis
Female
Humans
Medical Records
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Metastasis
Papillomavirus, Human - isolation & purification
Papovaviridae Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational
Predictive value of tests
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Smoking
Sweden - epidemiology
Tumor Virus Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - virology
Vaginal Smears - standards
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Effective screening programs have contributed to a decrease in the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinomas but have had a limited sensitivity in the detection of adenocarcinoma precursor lesions. The aim of our study was to analyze cervical adenocarcinoma in greater detail: symptoms preceding the detection, the method of detection and the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) with respect to age at diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical data were abstracted from the medical records of 82 women with pure invasive cervical adenocarcinomas. As diagnostic tools we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or direct DNA sequencing for HPV detection. RESULTS: Age at diagnosis predicting factors were HPV status, positive lymph nodes, histology and stage. HPV-negativity, lymph node metastases, advanced stage and poor differentiation were all associated with a high diagnostic age. In the multivariate analysis only HPV status was shown to have an independent impact on age at diagnosis, while stage showed only borderline significance. Twenty-three percent of the cancers were detected by screening and the remaining were due to different symptoms. Among the women considered, 93% had a normal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear 3 years before diagnosis and 60% within 1 year. There was no significant correlation between smoking, oral contraceptives and HPV-positivity. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of HPV was significantly associated with a high age at diagnosis. Pap screening had a limited effect in detecting adenocarcinoma at an early stage.
PubMed ID
12956848 View in PubMed
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Aetiological parallel between anal cancer and cervical cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24733
Source
Lancet. 1991 Sep 14;338(8768):657-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-14-1991
Author
M. Melbye
P. Sprøgel
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Registry, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen.
Source
Lancet. 1991 Sep 14;338(8768):657-9
Date
Sep-14-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Anus Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Carcinoma in Situ - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local - epidemiology - etiology
Odds Ratio
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Vulvar Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
It has been postulated that an infectious agent and/or specific sexual behaviour is involved in the aetiology of anal cancer, in analogy with the aetiology established for cancer of the cervix. A case-control study of 29,648 women with cancers registered in the Danish Cancer Registry during 1968-87 tested the hypothesis that anal cancer patients were more likely than patients with colon, stomach, or vulva cancer to have had a previous diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or invasive cervical cancer. The odds ratio of CIN, adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, for anal vs colon cancer was 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3-8.3), that for anal vs stomach cancer 3.6 (2.1-6.0), and that for anal vs vulva cancer 1.6 (0.9-2.9). The median time from diagnosis of CIN to diagnosis of the registered cancer was 151 months for anal, 112 months for vulva, 114 months for colon, and 126 months for stomach cancer. The association with previous invasive cervical cancer was also investigated; no patient with cervical cancer in this second analysis had been included in the CIN analysis. The odds ratios were similar. In addition, anal cancer patients were significantly more likely to have had cervical cancer than were patients with vulva cancer (odds ratio 1.8 [1.0-3.9]). The strong association between anal cancer and CIN/invasive cervical cancer suggests that these cancers share common risk factors. The association is at least as strong as that between cervical and vulva cancer.
PubMed ID
1679474 View in PubMed
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Age at time of first intercourse v. chronologic age as a basis for Pap smear screening.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature243029
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1982 Jul 15;127(2):127-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-15-1982
Author
V C Wright
M A Riopelle
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1982 Jul 15;127(2):127-31
Date
Jul-15-1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Carcinoma in Situ - diagnosis - epidemiology
Coitus
Female
Humans
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Ontario
Papanicolaou test
Time Factors
Uterine Cervical Dysplasia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Vaginal Smears
Abstract
The Walton Report on cervical cancer screening programs recently recommended a new program for screening for cervical cancer based on chronologic age, calling for 3- and 5-year intervals between examinations. It recommended that such examinations be discontinued after 60 years of age. In a group of 232 routinely examined women (aged 18 to 47 years) in whom cervical intraepithelial neoplasia developed the timing of onset of the disease and the implications for screening were studied. The average age at the time of diagnosis was 30 years; in 20% of the patients the diagnosis had been made after age 35. The screening program recommended in the Walton Report would have been effective in diagnosing most cases (80%) in this sample by age 35 and all by age 60. However, when the patients were grouped according to age at the time of first intercourse, the diagnosis had been made after age 35 in only 13% of those who started having intercourse at age 15 to 17 years, 20% of those who started at age 18 to 19 years and 33% of those who started at age 20 years of later. When the times of diagnosis were expressed by number of years of intercourse the distributions became uniform in the same three groups; in 72% of all the patients the diagnosis had been made within the first 15 years of intercourse, in 88% it had been made within 20 years and in 100% it had been made by 30 years. These data suggest that a program based on number of years of intercourse may be more uniform and more efficient than one based on chronologic age, and that cytologic examinations should be concentrated during the time when most cases develop -- 6 to 20 years after the time of first intercourse.
Notes
Cites: JAMA. 1960 Dec 3;174(14):1847-5112259009
Cites: Lancet. 1965 Oct 16;2(7416):756-94157809
Cites: Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1966 Feb;6(1):30-45218307
Cites: Cancer Chemother Rep. 1966 Mar;50(3):163-705910392
Cites: Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1967 May;57(5):840-76067208
Cites: Cancer Res. 1967 Apr;27(4):603-176025727
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1967 Jul 15;98(6):792-96027707
Cites: Cancer. 1968 Apr;21(4):663-715643761
Cites: Cancer Res. 1968 Apr;28(4):695-7065649059
Cites: Cancer. 1969 Feb;23(2):458-605764984
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1969 May;89(5):547-545818824
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969 Oct 1;105(3):386-935810787
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1976 Sep 1;126(1):110-5961736
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1976 Oct 15;126(4):418-21984102
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978 Jul 15;131(6):620-3581144
Cites: Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1980 Nov 19;210(1180):411-216109302
Cites: Acta Cytol. 1965 Jul-Sep;9:314-614336995
PubMed ID
7093858 View in PubMed
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Age-incidence relationships and time trends in cervical cancer in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19381
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(4):323-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
K. Hemminki
X. Li
P. Mutanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden. kari.hemminki@cnt.ki.se
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(4):323-8
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
Age-incidence relationships are informative of carcinogenic mechanisms. These have been previously assessed for cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but not for adenocarcinoma. The aim was to assess by means of age-, period- and cohort-specific analyses and Poisson regression modelling whether the two types of cervical cancer show an age-incidence maximum at a relatively young age, as shown in cross-sectional analyses. The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse age-incidence relationships in cervical SCC and adenocarcinoma diagnosed in years 1958-1996, including a total of 15,118 and 1866 cases, respectively. Area of residence and socio-economic status were included in analyses because they were risk factors of cervical cancer. The analysis of cervical SCC confirmed an incidence maximum at ages 35-39 years. The data for adenocarcinoma also suggested a similar early age maximum but the curves differed extensively by birth cohort. The incidence of adenocarcinoma increased substantially at young age groups towards the end of follow-up. Endometrial adenocarcinoma and vaginal and vulvar SCC, which share some risk factors with cervical cancer, did not show an early age incidence maximum. The results also showed that there was a decrease in the incidence of cervical SCC around year 1960, almost 10 years before the organized population screening, probably due to introduced opportunistic pap testing. The benefits of the organized screening were observed as a further decline in the incidence rates. The unique age-incidence relationships in cervical cancer call for biological explanations.
PubMed ID
11767957 View in PubMed
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Alcoholism and risk for cancer of the cervix uteri, vagina, and vulva.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19635
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 Aug;10(8):899-901
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
E. Weiderpass
W. Ye
R. Tamimi
D. Trichopolous
O. Nyren
H. Vainio
H O Adami
Author Affiliation
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. Weiderpass@iarc.fr
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 Aug;10(8):899-901
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - complications
Carcinoma in Situ - complications - etiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Invasiveness
Odds Ratio
Papillomavirus, Human - pathogenicity
Papovaviridae Infections - complications
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Tumor Virus Infections - complications
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Vaginal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Vaginal Smears
Vulvar Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
We conducted a population-based cohort study to analyze the risk of developing cancers of the female genitals among 36,856 patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of alcoholism (ICD-7: 307, 322; ICD-8: 291, 303; ICD-9: 291, 303, 305A) in Sweden between 1965 and 1995. The follow-up was done by linkages of national registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed based on nationwide specific cancer rates. The first year of follow-up was excluded from all analyses to minimize the impact of selection bias. We found that alcoholic women had excess risks for in situ cervical cancer (SIR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.9), for invasive cervical cancer (SIR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.4-3.5), and for cancer of the vagina (SIR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.2-8.5) but not for cancer of the vulva (SIR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.0). The fact that alcoholics had an excess risk also for the in situ cancer suggests that the observed excess in invasive cervical cancer may not only be attributable to less use of Pap smear screening among them. The alcoholic women may be at higher risk for the progression from human papillomavirus infection to a malignant lesion for lifestyle-related reasons (promiscuity, smoking, use of contraceptive hormones, and dietary deficiencies). We conclude that alcoholic women are at high risk for in situ and invasive cervical cancer and for cancer of the vagina.
PubMed ID
11489758 View in PubMed
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Alternative technologies in cervical cancer screening: a randomised evaluation trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167012
Source
BMC Public Health. 2006;6:252
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Ahti Anttila
Matti Hakama
Laura Kotaniemi-Talonen
Pekka Nieminen
Author Affiliation
Mass Screening Registry, Finnish Cancer Registry, Liisankatu 21 B, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland. ahti.anttila@cancer.fi
Source
BMC Public Health. 2006;6:252
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cytological Techniques
DNA, Viral - analysis
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Mass Screening - methods - organization & administration
Middle Aged
Papillomaviridae - isolation & purification
Papillomavirus Infections - pathology
Precancerous Conditions - pathology
Program Evaluation - methods
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic - methods
Sensitivity and specificity
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology - pathology - virology
Abstract
Cervical cancer screening programmes have markedly reduced the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. A substantial amount of deaths from the disease could be prevented further by organised screening programmes or improving currently running programmes.
We present here a randomised evaluation trial design integrated to the Finnish cervical cancer screening programme, in order to evaluate renewal of the programme using emerging technological alternatives. The main aim of the evaluation is to assess screening effectiveness, using subsequent cancers as the outcome and screen-detected pre-cancers as surrogates. For the time being, approximately 863,000 women have been allocated to automation-assisted cytology, human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing, or to conventional cytology within the organised screening programme. Follow-up results on subsequent cervical cancers will become available during 2007-2015.
Large-scale randomised trials are useful to clarify effectiveness and cost-effectiveness issues of the most important technological alternatives in the screening programmes for cervical cancer.
Notes
Cites: Br J Cancer. 2004 Aug 31;91(5):935-4115280916
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Cites: JAMA. 1989 Feb 3;261(5):737-432642983
Cites: Br J Cancer. 1991 Sep;64(3):559-651911199
Cites: Lancet. 1995 Dec 9;346(8989):1566-77491080
Cites: Acta Cytol. 1996 Jan-Feb;40(1):127-328604565
Cites: Cancer. 1996 Jul 1;78(1):112-78646706
Cites: Int J Cancer. 1996 Dec 11;68(6):766-98980181
Cites: BMJ. 1997 Mar 22;314(7084):864-79093096
Cites: Int J Cancer. 1997 Apr 10;71(2):159-659139836
Cites: Acta Oncol. 1997;36 Suppl 9:1-609143316
Cites: Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Apr;91(4):626-319540955
Cites: J Med Screen. 1999;6(2):103-710444730
Cites: Health Technol Assess. 1999;3(14):i-iv, 1-19610530393
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Cites: BJOG. 2004 Aug;111(8):842-815270934
PubMed ID
17042938 View in PubMed
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Anal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20363
Source
Br J Cancer. 2000 Jul;83(1):89-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
M. Frisch
C. Johansen
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen.
Source
Br J Cancer. 2000 Jul;83(1):89-90
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anus Neoplasms - epidemiology
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Colitis, Ulcerative - epidemiology
Crohn Disease - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Susceptibility
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Second Primary - epidemiology
Risk
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
We followed 9602 patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis for anal squamous cell carcinoma for up to 18 years. No significant increase was observed: two cases occurred vs 1.3 expected during 99,229 person-years of observation, (standardized incidence ratio = 1.6; 95 confidence interval: 0.2-5.7). Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare even in inflammatory bowel disease.
PubMed ID
10883673 View in PubMed
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472 records – page 1 of 48.