Nordic countries' data offer a unique possibility to evaluate the long-term benefit of cervical cancer screening in a context of increasing risk of human papillomavirus infection.
Ad hoc-refined age-period-cohort models were applied to the last 50-year incidence data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to project expected cervical cancer cases in a no-screening scenario.
In the absence of screening, projected incidence rates for 2006-2010 in Nordic countries would have been between 3 and 5 times higher than observed rates. Over 60,000 cases or between 41 and 49% of the expected cases of cervical cancer may have been prevented by the introduction of screening in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Our study suggests that screening programmes might have prevented a HPV-driven epidemic of cervical cancer in Nordic countries. According to extrapolations from cohort effects, cervical cancer incidence rates in the Nordic countries would have been otherwise comparable to the highest incidence rates currently detected in low-income countries.
There is a large amount of evidence that the ABO blood group system may play a role in disease etiology. A relationship between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and cancer risk has been demonstrated in a number of studies. However, in relation to gynecological malignancies, these findings are inconsistent and contradictory.
To perform a case-control study for analysis of the distribution of ABO and Rh blood antigens among women from South-East Siberia who suffered from ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer, and to assess the potential role of these antigens in carcinogenesis.
A total of 1,163 cases with ovarian cancer (n=551), endometrial cancer (n=440) and cervical cancer (n=172) were involved in the study. The control group was formed from 22,581 female blood donors. Blood groups were determined through patients medical records and blood donor records. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The blood group O was defined as the referent group, as it has the greatest frequency in the populations of Southern Siberia. P values less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.
We found that carriage of non-O blood types increased the risk of ovarian cancer by 40-60%, and the magnitude of this relationship was strongest in women with the AB (IV) blood group. Carriage of the A (II) blood group strongly correlated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in premenopausal, but not in postmenopausal women. No statistically significant correlations were obtained for endometrial cancer and cervical cancer. Additionally, we did not observe a relationship between Rhesus factor and cancer risk.
We suggest that carriage of non-O blood groups may elevate risk of ovarian cancer and can play a role in its development.
BACKGROUND: Effective screening programs have contributed to a decrease in the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinomas but have had a limited sensitivity in the detection of adenocarcinoma precursor lesions. The aim of our study was to analyze cervical adenocarcinoma in greater detail: symptoms preceding the detection, the method of detection and the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) with respect to age at diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical data were abstracted from the medical records of 82 women with pure invasive cervical adenocarcinomas. As diagnostic tools we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or direct DNA sequencing for HPV detection. RESULTS: Age at diagnosis predicting factors were HPV status, positive lymph nodes, histology and stage. HPV-negativity, lymph node metastases, advanced stage and poor differentiation were all associated with a high diagnostic age. In the multivariate analysis only HPV status was shown to have an independent impact on age at diagnosis, while stage showed only borderline significance. Twenty-three percent of the cancers were detected by screening and the remaining were due to different symptoms. Among the women considered, 93% had a normal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear 3 years before diagnosis and 60% within 1 year. There was no significant correlation between smoking, oral contraceptives and HPV-positivity. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of HPV was significantly associated with a high age at diagnosis. Pap screening had a limited effect in detecting adenocarcinoma at an early stage.
It has been postulated that an infectious agent and/or specific sexual behaviour is involved in the aetiology of anal cancer, in analogy with the aetiology established for cancer of the cervix. A case-control study of 29,648 women with cancers registered in the Danish Cancer Registry during 1968-87 tested the hypothesis that anal cancer patients were more likely than patients with colon, stomach, or vulva cancer to have had a previous diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or invasive cervical cancer. The odds ratio of CIN, adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, for anal vs colon cancer was 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3-8.3), that for anal vs stomach cancer 3.6 (2.1-6.0), and that for anal vs vulva cancer 1.6 (0.9-2.9). The median time from diagnosis of CIN to diagnosis of the registered cancer was 151 months for anal, 112 months for vulva, 114 months for colon, and 126 months for stomach cancer. The association with previous invasive cervical cancer was also investigated; no patient with cervical cancer in this second analysis had been included in the CIN analysis. The odds ratios were similar. In addition, anal cancer patients were significantly more likely to have had cervical cancer than were patients with vulva cancer (odds ratio 1.8 [1.0-3.9]). The strong association between anal cancer and CIN/invasive cervical cancer suggests that these cancers share common risk factors. The association is at least as strong as that between cervical and vulva cancer.
The Walton Report on cervical cancer screening programs recently recommended a new program for screening for cervical cancer based on chronologic age, calling for 3- and 5-year intervals between examinations. It recommended that such examinations be discontinued after 60 years of age. In a group of 232 routinely examined women (aged 18 to 47 years) in whom cervical intraepithelial neoplasia developed the timing of onset of the disease and the implications for screening were studied. The average age at the time of diagnosis was 30 years; in 20% of the patients the diagnosis had been made after age 35. The screening program recommended in the Walton Report would have been effective in diagnosing most cases (80%) in this sample by age 35 and all by age 60. However, when the patients were grouped according to age at the time of first intercourse, the diagnosis had been made after age 35 in only 13% of those who started having intercourse at age 15 to 17 years, 20% of those who started at age 18 to 19 years and 33% of those who started at age 20 years of later. When the times of diagnosis were expressed by number of years of intercourse the distributions became uniform in the same three groups; in 72% of all the patients the diagnosis had been made within the first 15 years of intercourse, in 88% it had been made within 20 years and in 100% it had been made by 30 years. These data suggest that a program based on number of years of intercourse may be more uniform and more efficient than one based on chronologic age, and that cytologic examinations should be concentrated during the time when most cases develop -- 6 to 20 years after the time of first intercourse.
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Age-incidence relationships are informative of carcinogenic mechanisms. These have been previously assessed for cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but not for adenocarcinoma. The aim was to assess by means of age-, period- and cohort-specific analyses and Poisson regression modelling whether the two types of cervical cancer show an age-incidence maximum at a relatively young age, as shown in cross-sectional analyses. The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse age-incidence relationships in cervical SCC and adenocarcinoma diagnosed in years 1958-1996, including a total of 15,118 and 1866 cases, respectively. Area of residence and socio-economic status were included in analyses because they were risk factors of cervical cancer. The analysis of cervical SCC confirmed an incidence maximum at ages 35-39 years. The data for adenocarcinoma also suggested a similar early age maximum but the curves differed extensively by birth cohort. The incidence of adenocarcinoma increased substantially at young age groups towards the end of follow-up. Endometrial adenocarcinoma and vaginal and vulvar SCC, which share some risk factors with cervical cancer, did not show an early age incidence maximum. The results also showed that there was a decrease in the incidence of cervical SCC around year 1960, almost 10 years before the organized population screening, probably due to introduced opportunistic pap testing. The benefits of the organized screening were observed as a further decline in the incidence rates. The unique age-incidence relationships in cervical cancer call for biological explanations.
We conducted a population-based cohort study to analyze the risk of developing cancers of the female genitals among 36,856 patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of alcoholism (ICD-7: 307, 322; ICD-8: 291, 303; ICD-9: 291, 303, 305A) in Sweden between 1965 and 1995. The follow-up was done by linkages of national registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed based on nationwide specific cancer rates. The first year of follow-up was excluded from all analyses to minimize the impact of selection bias. We found that alcoholic women had excess risks for in situ cervical cancer (SIR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.9), for invasive cervical cancer (SIR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.4-3.5), and for cancer of the vagina (SIR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.2-8.5) but not for cancer of the vulva (SIR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.0). The fact that alcoholics had an excess risk also for the in situ cancer suggests that the observed excess in invasive cervical cancer may not only be attributable to less use of Pap smear screening among them. The alcoholic women may be at higher risk for the progression from human papillomavirus infection to a malignant lesion for lifestyle-related reasons (promiscuity, smoking, use of contraceptive hormones, and dietary deficiencies). We conclude that alcoholic women are at high risk for in situ and invasive cervical cancer and for cancer of the vagina.
Cervical cancer screening programmes have markedly reduced the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. A substantial amount of deaths from the disease could be prevented further by organised screening programmes or improving currently running programmes.
We present here a randomised evaluation trial design integrated to the Finnish cervical cancer screening programme, in order to evaluate renewal of the programme using emerging technological alternatives. The main aim of the evaluation is to assess screening effectiveness, using subsequent cancers as the outcome and screen-detected pre-cancers as surrogates. For the time being, approximately 863,000 women have been allocated to automation-assisted cytology, human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing, or to conventional cytology within the organised screening programme. Follow-up results on subsequent cervical cancers will become available during 2007-2015.
Large-scale randomised trials are useful to clarify effectiveness and cost-effectiveness issues of the most important technological alternatives in the screening programmes for cervical cancer.
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We followed 9602 patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis for anal squamous cell carcinoma for up to 18 years. No significant increase was observed: two cases occurred vs 1.3 expected during 99,229 person-years of observation, (standardized incidence ratio = 1.6; 95 confidence interval: 0.2-5.7). Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare even in inflammatory bowel disease.