We evaluated a cytology screening program, offered by a large aluminum producer after the discovery of an excess of bladder cancer due to occupational exposure to coal-tar-pitch volatiles, in terms of early detection and survival, based on information in the public domain. From January 1970 through June 1986, 79 cases of bladder cancer were identified in this cohort of aluminum workers aged 65 years or younger. By the end of 1986, 36 had died, with bladder cancer as the primary cause of death for 53%. Cases diagnosed after the screening program was introduced in 1980 were compared with those diagnosed earlier. In cases diagnosed after 1980, the proportion identified at early stages was higher (77% v 67%) and survival seemed improved but the differences were not statistically significant. Although these results do not encourage an optimistic view of screening effectiveness in this population, the limits inherent in the present study make it impossible to draw any firm conclusion. Studies restricted to public domain information do not appear to have sufficient data to evaluate workplace screening programs.
Informative value of two tests based on FISH of exfoliated urothelial cells in urine sediment (AURKA and UroVysion) was compared in the group of patients (31 persons) with the history of bladder cancer. Coincidence in results of both FISH assays was found in 93.5%. These preliminary data offer the possibility of replacing the expensive UroVysion kit by the less expensive AURKA FISH probe and it could be used for monitoring of recurrence in bladder cancer patients.
In the literature to date, there are no studies that directly evaluate microscopic urine examination results obtained by a physician compared to those of a trained laboratory technician. Our purpose in undertaking this study was to determine whether there would be comparable results obtained by these two groups. The study took place in an Emergency Medicine Department with 45,000 visits annually. Each urine sample obtained on patients presenting to the Emergency Department was divided into two lots: one was sent to the laboratory and the other was analyzed by the emergency physician. A comparison of both dipstick and microscopic results by physician and laboratory staff was then made using sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa analysis. Statistical analysis of the data revealed close agreement between the emergency physician and laboratory technician with respect to the following components of urinalysis: red blood cell urinalysis and microscopy, leukocyte esterase, and nitrite testing. Microscopy for white cells and bacteria and testing for proteinuria were not in close agreement. Urinalysis by emergency physicians is comparable to laboratory technicians for a number of the testing components. However, in this limited pilot study, emergency physicians were not able to consistently perform urinalysis for the laboratory standard.
A prospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of significant asymptomatic bacteriuria in adult women with diabetes mellitus attending endocrinology clinics at two tertiary-care university-affiliated teaching hospitals. In addition, host factors of the patients were correlated with bacteriuria. The overall prevalence of bacteriuria was 7.9% (85 cases per 1,072 women). Absolute urinary leukocyte (white blood cell) counts were > or = 10/mm3 in 77.6% (66) of the 85 bacteriuric women vs. 23.7% (234) of the 987 nonbacteriuric women (P
We evaluated US, CT, intravenous urography, arteriography, retrograde pyelography and urine cytology results in a series of 23 patients with renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinomas, 14 of whom underwent US, 17 i.v. urography, 8 CT, 15 arteriography, 9 retrograde pyelography, and 17 patients urine cytology. A tumour was identified in 5 patients (36%) at US, in 11 patients (61%) at urography, in 7 (88%) at CT, in 10 patients (67%) at arteriography, and in 8 (89%) at retrograde pyelography. Urine cytology was assessed as showing changes consistent with Papanicolaou class III-V in 15 (88%) of 17 patients. When renal pelvic cancer is suspected, intravenous urography should be performed as the initial radiological examination and followed by CT, which may also identify tumour spread. Arteriography and retrograde pyelography are sometimes complementary investigations. Repeated urinary cytology is mandatory. Our results show that US alone is unreliable in detecting renal pelvic cancer.
Urine samples constitute a large proportion of samples tested in clinical microbiology laboratories. Culturing of the samples is fairly time- and labor-consuming, and most of the samples will yield no growth or insignificant growth. We analyzed the feasibility of the flow cytometry-based UF-500i instrument (Sysmex, Japan) to screen out urine samples with no growth or insignificant growth and reduce the number of samples to be cultured. A total of 1,094 urine specimens sent to our laboratory for culture during 4 months in the spring of 2009 in Lahti, Finland, were included in the study. After culture, all samples were analyzed with the Sysmex UF-500i for bacterial and leukocyte (white blood cell [WBC]) counts. Youden index and closest (0,1) methods were used to determine the cutoff values for bacterial and WBC counts in culture-positive and -negative groups. By flow cytometry, samples considered positive for UTI in culture had bacterial and WBC values that were significantly higher than those for samples considered negative. The flow cytometric screening worked best when both bacterial counts and WBC counts were used with age- and gender-specific cutoff values for all patient groups, excluding patients with urological disease or anomaly. By use of these cutoff values, 5/167 (3.0%) of culture-positive samples were missed by UF-500i and the percentage of samples that did not need to be cultured was 64.5%. Use of the UF-500i instrument is a reliable method for screening out a major part of the UTI-negative samples, significantly diminishing the amount of work required in the microbiology laboratory.