In a study performed at a Stockholm clinic for young people with drug abuse problems, where urine adulteration was suspected to be fairly frequent, a total of 594 patient specimens were subjected to Adultacheck test strip screening for nitrite, glutaraldehyde, pH, and creatinine. Creatinine measurement was also performed at the laboratory, together with drug screening using EMIT reagents, and a subsample was spiked with phencyclidine to verify EMIT test function. The frequency of dilute urine (creatinine
Antibiotic resistance is a problem in nursing homes. Presumed urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common infection. This study examines urine culture results from elderly patients to see if specific guidelines based on gender or whether the patient resides in a nursing home (NH) are warranted.
This is a cross sectional observation study comparing urine cultures from NH patients with urine cultures from patients in the same age group living in the community.
There were 232 positive urine cultures in the NH group and 3554 in the community group. Escherichia coli was isolated in 145 urines in the NH group (64%) and 2275 (64%) in the community group. There were no clinically significant differences in resistance. Combined, there were 3016 positive urine cultures from females and 770 from males. Escherichia coli was significantly more common in females 2120 (70%) than in males 303 (39%) (p?
Cites: Intern Med J. 2012 Jul;42(7):e157-6421241444
To compare the results of urine cultures and reagent strip testing in 2 groups of elderly emergency department (ED) patients: an asymptomatic group unlikely to have urinary tract infection (UTI), and a group who had vague symptoms and were considered at risk for UTI.
We performed a prospective observational convenience study with 2 groups of 100 patients aged 65 or older. The asymptomatic group consisted of afebrile patients presenting to the ED with non-infectious complaints, while the symptomatic group included patients presenting with acute confusion, weakness or fever but no apparent urinary symptoms. We defined a positive urine culture as a single organism count greater than 100,000 CFU/mL in mid-stream specimens, or greater than 1000 CFU/mL in catheter specimens. We considered reagent strips positive if they demonstrated any reaction to the leukocyte-esterase assay, the nitrite assay or both.
Of the 33 positive cultures, 10 had negative reagent strips. Thirteen of the 14 positive nitrite tests were culture positive for a specificity of 92.8% and a sensitivity of 36.1%. Positive cultures did not infer a diagnosis of UTI. Of the 67 positive reagent strips, 41 (61.2%) were associated with negative cultures. Likelihood ratios (LRs) in both groups affirmed the inability of the reagent strips to help significantly in decision making, with positive and negative LR in the indeterminate range (control group: 2.8 and 0.31, symptomatic group: 2.7 and 0.46, respectively).
In the elderly, reagent testing is an unreliable method of identifying patients with positive urine [corrected] cultures. Moreover, positive urine culture rates are only slightly higher in patients with vague symptoms attributable to UTI than they are in (asymptomatic) patients treated for non-urologic problems, which suggests that many positive cultures in elderly patients with non- focal systemic symptoms are false-positive tests reflecting asymptomatic bacteriuria and not UTIs. Blood cultures, regarded by many as the criterion standard for UTI, do not have sufficient specificity to confirm the diagnosis of UTI in elderly patients with non-specific symptoms.
Informative value of two tests based on FISH of exfoliated urothelial cells in urine sediment (AURKA and UroVysion) was compared in the group of patients (31 persons) with the history of bladder cancer. Coincidence in results of both FISH assays was found in 93.5%. These preliminary data offer the possibility of replacing the expensive UroVysion kit by the less expensive AURKA FISH probe and it could be used for monitoring of recurrence in bladder cancer patients.
An analytical exercise was initiated in order to determine those procedures with the capability to measure total uranium and uranium (238U/235U) isotopic ratios in urine samples containing >0.02 microg U kg-1 urine. A host laboratory prepared six identical sets of twelve synthetic urine samples containing total uranium in the range of 25 to 770 ng U kg-1 urine and with 238U/235U isotopic ratios ranging from 138 (100% NU) to 215 (51% DU). Sets of samples were shipped to five testing laboratories (four based in Canada and one based in Europe). Each laboratory utilized one of the following analytical techniques: sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS), quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), and instrumental/delayed neutron activation analysis (I/DNAA), in their analyses.
In the literature to date, there are no studies that directly evaluate microscopic urine examination results obtained by a physician compared to those of a trained laboratory technician. Our purpose in undertaking this study was to determine whether there would be comparable results obtained by these two groups. The study took place in an Emergency Medicine Department with 45,000 visits annually. Each urine sample obtained on patients presenting to the Emergency Department was divided into two lots: one was sent to the laboratory and the other was analyzed by the emergency physician. A comparison of both dipstick and microscopic results by physician and laboratory staff was then made using sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa analysis. Statistical analysis of the data revealed close agreement between the emergency physician and laboratory technician with respect to the following components of urinalysis: red blood cell urinalysis and microscopy, leukocyte esterase, and nitrite testing. Microscopy for white cells and bacteria and testing for proteinuria were not in close agreement. Urinalysis by emergency physicians is comparable to laboratory technicians for a number of the testing components. However, in this limited pilot study, emergency physicians were not able to consistently perform urinalysis for the laboratory standard.
A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations.
To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two different prediction methods in a Danish population.
Overall, 473 Danish individuals provided a para-aminobenzoic acid-validated complete 24-hour urine collection and a spot urine sample. Data were collected in the DanThyr study (248 women aged 25-30 years and 60-65 years) and the Inter99 study (102 men and 113 women aged 30-60 years), respectively. The measured 24-hour urine sodium excretion was compared with the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion from a causal urine specimen, using both the Tanaka prediction method and a prediction model developed in a Danish population.
The measured 24-hour sodium excretion (median, 5th to 95th percentile) was men 195 (110 to 360) and women 139 (61 to 258), whereas the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion for the Tanaka model was men 171 (117 to 222) and women 153 (92 to 228) and for the Danish model was men 207 (146 to 258); women 134 (103 to 163). The Spearman correlation between predicted and measured 24-hour sodium excretion was 0.39 and 0.49 for the Tanaka and the Danish model, respectively. For both prediction models, the proportion of individuals classified in the same or adjacent quintile was 74% for men and 64% for women.
Both prediction models gave a reasonable classification of individuals according to their sodium excretion. However, the median daily sodium intake was estimated more precisely by the Danish model, especially among men.
Antipyrine (AP) metabolism was used to assess factors associated with the activity of hepatic oxidative enzymes in firefighters. Emphasis was placed on 3-hydroxymethylantipyrine (3HMAP), the metabolite with the greatest dependence on dioxin-inducible cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) activity. AP urinary metabolites were measured by HPLC in 38 male subjects from Eastern Siberia. Subjects were divided into three groups having similar ages and BMIs: current firefighters (n=11); former firefighters (n=17) and non-firefighters (n=10). Multiple regression models were constructed using the three major AP metabolites as a dependent variable to assess the influence of age, smoking as urinary cotinine concentration, dioxin exposure (as either WHO-TEQ or body burden), group, and CYP1A2*F (-163C>A) genotypes. Models for the proportion of dose excreted as the metabolite 3HMAP produced the best fit (adjusted R(2)=0.46, p