A representative population sample of middle-aged women was studied in 1974-75. In a subsample, body composition and adipose tissue cellularity variables were determined and individuals with a particular clinical disorder were compared with the total subsample. Women with diabetes mellitus had more body fat and higher fat cell weights and larger fat cell members, whereas these variables did not differ in women with IHD or hypertension compared with the total subsample. Total body fat correlated with arterial BPs, fasting blood glucose, serum lipids and serum uric acid. The correlations were stronger than those reported previously by us between weight index and these variables. In univariate analyses, fat cell weight correlated with systolic BP, serum triglycerides and serum uric acid, and fat cell number with diastolic BP, fasting blood glucose and serum uric acid. In multivariate analyses, when due allowance was made for total body fat, the correlations between these variables and fat cell weight or fat cell number did not reach statistical significance.
Copper-induced plasma lipoprotein oxidation resistance has usually been determined in separated low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions, that do not contain water-soluble antioxidants present in blood plasma. The aim of this study was to find the main determinants of the measurements of copper-induced lipid oxidation resistance (lag time) in whole serum and plasma total peroxyl radical trapping capacity (TRAP) in a population sample of smoking (n = 25) or non-smoking (n = 26) middle aged men at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Smokers had significantly lower plasma ascorbic acid values, but only slightly lower alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and serum urate values than non-smokers. Plasma ascorbic acid concentration explained 23.5% of the lag time variation (standardized regression coefficient beta = 0.48; P = 0.004) in smokers and 5.6% in non-smokers. Serum urate concentration was the strongest determinant of lag time in non-smokers (beta = 0.64, P
BACKGROUND: Various inter-dependent factors influence serum biochemical values. In the elderly, the impact of these factors may differ compared with younger age groups and therefore population-based studies among older people are needed. The specific morbidity in old age, including also various types of drug therapy, should be observed. METHODS: Various biochemical tests in 349 females and 186 males over 81 years of age were carried out and the associations of biochemical values with morbidity, drug therapy, anthropometry and gender were estimated. RESULTS: Biochemical serum values deviate in various diseases, characterized by increased frequency in the elderly, i.e. congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, hip fractures, depression and dementia. All of these diseases present a tendency to increased homocysteine, usually combined with low folate. Cases with intact cognitive function throughout the six years after sampling are characterized by low homocysteine, which is the opposite of what is found in dementia. Furthermore, congestive heart failure is associated with impaired creatinine clearance and increased urea and urate, and osteoporosis and hip fractures are characterized by low albumin and cholesterol. Increased values for urate and impaired creatinine clearance are found in coronary diseases. In gout, multiple biochemical changes take place. For cases with a history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, peptic ulcer and malignancy, few changes are found compared with the values of the total sample. Furosemide therapy is associated with the same pattern as congestive heart failure, and laxative treatment is characterized by low folate and high homocysteine values.
To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index.
Mendelian randomisation analysis, using variation at specific genes (SLC2A9 (rs7442295) as an instrument for uric acid; and FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313), and TMEM18 (rs6548238) for body mass index).
Two large, prospective cohort studies in Denmark.
We measured levels of uric acid and related covariables in 58,072 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study and 10,602 from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, comprising 4890 and 2282 cases of ischaemic heart disease, respectively.
Blood pressure and prospectively assessed ischaemic heart disease.
Estimates confirmed known observational associations between plasma uric acid and hyperuricaemia with risk of ischaemic heart disease and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. However, when using genotypic instruments for uric acid and hyperuricaemia, we saw no evidence for causal associations between uric acid, ischaemic heart disease, and blood pressure. We used genetic instruments to investigate body mass index as a potentially confounding factor in observational associations, and saw a causal effect on uric acid levels. Every four unit increase of body mass index saw a rise in uric acid of 0.03 mmol/L (95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.04), and an increase in risk of hyperuricaemia of 7.5% (3.9% to 11.1%).
By contrast with observational findings, there is no strong evidence for causal associations between uric acid and ischaemic heart disease or blood pressure. However, evidence supports a causal effect between body mass index and uric acid level and hyperuricaemia. This finding strongly suggests body mass index as a confounder in observational associations, and suggests a role for elevated body mass index or obesity in the development of uric acid related conditions.
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Serum uric acid (SUA) is a suggested biomarker for established coronary artery disease, but the role of SUA in early phases of atherosclerosis is controversial. The relations of SUA with vascular markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, including carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid plaque, carotid distensibility (Cdist) and brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were examined in 1985 young adults aged 30-45 years. In addition to ordinary regression, we used Mendelian randomization techniques to infer causal associations.
In women, the independent multivariate correlates of SUA included BMI, creatinine, alcohol use, triglycerides, glucose and adiponectin (inverse association) (Model R(2) = 0.30). In men, the correlates were BMI, creatinine, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, alcohol use, total cholesterol and adiponectin (inverse) (Model R(2) = 0.33). BMI alone explained most of the variation of SUA levels both in women and men (Partial R(2) ~ 0.2). When SUA was modeled as an explanatory variable for vascular markers, it directly associated with cIMT and inversely with Cdist in age- and sex-adjusted analysis. After further adjustments for BMI or glomerular filtration rate, these relations were reduced to non-significance. No associations were found between SUA and FMD or the presence of a carotid plaque. Mendelian randomization analyses using known genetic variants for BMI and SUA confirmed that BMI is causally linked to SUA and that BMI is a significant confounder in the association between SUA and cIMT.
SUA is associated with cardiovascular risk markers in young adults, especially BMI, but we found no evidence that SUA would have an independent role in the pathophysiology of early atherosclerosis.
A representative population sample of middle-aged women was studied in 1968-1969 and re-studied in 1974-1975. A total of 1302 women participated in both studies (80.3% of the initial sample). A statistically significant correlation was found between weight gain and the incidences of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant correlation was also found between cessation of smoking and weight gain. Regression analysis revealed statistically significant changes of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and serum uric acid with changes in body weight.
In experiments on the anaesthetized dogs with modeling of experimental ischemia (90 min) and reperfusion (180 min), the participation of biochemical processes in the cardioprotective effect of the preischemic activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels caused by intravenous introduction of flokalin, a new fluorine-containing opener of these channels was shown. Flokalin was introduced in a dose 0.1 mg/kg of animal body weight which practically did not change the parameters of hemodynamic in normoxia. Thus, the experiments investigating the influence offlokalin on changes of biochemical parameters of arterial blood during ischemia-reperfusion of myocardium showed certain features of ischemia-reperfusion syndrome development during stimulation of K(ATP) channels. The analysis of biochemical parameters of blood showed that flokalin suppressed free radical reactions and had antioxidant properties: reduced quantity of H2O2 and NO3- (the last can interpreted as a reduction in peroxynitrites formation), prevented the decline of catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. Practically constant content of low-molecular nitrosothiols in blood during all duration of experiment and increase of NO2-level during reperfusion may indicate on intact functions of the NO system and protective influence of flokalin during ischemia-reperfusion of myocardium. Practically unchanged content of inorganic phosphorus and uric acid in blood during ischemia- reperfusion under conditions of preischemic introduction of flokalin indicates the prevention of ATP degradation and fomation of both superoxide anion by xanthinoxidase and peroxynitrite by it interaction with nitric oxide. All mentioned properties of flokalin related to the changes of biochemical parameters of arterial blood, together with the changes of parameters of hemodynamics, result in diminishment of infarct size of myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion by 37% versus control experiments. K(ATP) channels, flokalin, ischemia-reperfusion, free radikaly, NO system.
Alteration of the biochemical blood indices has been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus that were treated with vaulen (V) and polysorb (P) enterosorbents. It was determined that alanine aminotransferase activity grew and albumin, urea, uric acid levels enhanced after the V treatment. Glucose level and alanine-, asparagine aminotransferases activities decreased after the P treatment. It is necessary to take into consideration these results when choosing an enterosorbent for treatment of patients with the immunocomplex rheumatic diseases accompanied by the liver parenchyma lesion and hyperuricemia.