Skip header and navigation

Refine By

18 records – page 1 of 2.

Are the cause(s) responsible for urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk rooted in families or in individuals?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169423
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):971-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-2006
Author
Carsten B Pedersen
Preben Bo Mortensen
Author Affiliation
National Centre for Register-based Research, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark. cbp@ncrr.dk
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):971-8
Date
Jun-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Birth Order
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Family
Poisson Distribution
Registries
Risk factors
Rural Population - trends
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Social Environment
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
Many studies have identified urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk. Hypothetical underlying cause(s) may include toxic exposures, diet, infections, and selective migration. The authors investigated whether the underlying cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences were rooted in families or in individuals. Linking data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, a population-based cohort of 711,897 people aged 15 years or more was established. Overall, 2,720 persons developed schizophrenia during the period 1970-2001. The authors evaluated whether the nearest older sibling's place of birth had an independent effect on schizophrenia risk. If the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences are rooted in individuals only, the nearest older sibling's place of birth should have no independent effect. In this analysis, the nearest older sibling's place of birth had an independent effect; among persons who lived in a rural area during their first 15 years of life, the relative risk was 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.30) if their nearest older sibling had been born in the capital area as compared with a rural area. Some of the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk are rooted in families, but some might also be rooted in individuals.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):979-8116675534
PubMed ID
16675535 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chain of care in chest pain--differences between three hospitals in an urban area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129323
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2013 Jun 20;166(2):440-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-20-2013
Author
A. Ravn-Fischer
T. Karlsson
M. Santos
B. Bergman
P. Johanson
J. Herlitz
Author Affiliation
Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2013 Jun 20;166(2):440-7
Date
Jun-20-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Coronary Syndrome - epidemiology - radiography - therapy
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Chest Pain - epidemiology - radiography - therapy
Coronary Angiography - trends - utilization
Female
Hospitalization - trends
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
To describe differences in treatment and delay times in acute chest pain at the three hospitals in Göteborg, Sweden.
All patients admitted to the three hospitals within Sahlgrenska University (SU) (Sahlgrenska: SU/S, Östra: SU/Ö and Mölndal: SU/M) with acute chest pain during 3 months in 2008 were evaluated for diagnosis, early treatment and outcome.
In all, 2588 visits by 2393 patients were included (visits n=1253 SU/S; n=853 SU/Ö; n=482 SU/M) of which 50%, 63% and 51% were hospitalised (p
PubMed ID
22119114 View in PubMed
Less detail

Contribution of drinking patterns to differences in rates of alcohol related problems between three urban populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181507
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Mar;58(3):238-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
M. Bobak
R. Room
H. Pikhart
R. Kubinova
S. Malyutina
A. Pajak
S. Kurilovitch
R. Topor
Y. Nikitin
M. Marmot
Author Affiliation
International Centre for Health and Society, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. martinb@public-health.ucl.ac.uk
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Mar;58(3):238-42
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - trends
Alcohol-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Czech Republic - epidemiology
Ethanol - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Poland - epidemiology
Russia - epidemiology
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
To examine, on empirical data, whether drinking patterns, in addition to overall alcohol consumption, contribute to differences in rates of alcohol related problems between populations.
Cross sectional survey.
One Russian, one Polish, and one Czech city.
1118 men and 1125 women randomly selected from population registers.
Problem drinking; negative social consequences of drinking; alcohol consumption and drinking pattern.
Rates of problem drinking and of negative consequences of drinking were much higher in Russian men (35% and 18%, respectively) than in Czechs (19% and 10%) or Poles (14% and 8%). This contrasts with substantially lower mean annual intake of alcohol reported by Russian men (4.6 litres) than by Czech men (8.5 litres), and with low mean drinking frequency in Russia (67 drinking sessions per year, compared with 179 sessions among Czech men). However, Russians consumed the highest dose of alcohol per drinking session (means 71 g in Russians, 46 g in Czechs, and 45 g in Poles), and had the highest prevalence of binge drinking. In women, the levels of alcohol related problems and of drinking were low in all countries. In ecological and individual level analyses, indicators of binge drinking explained a substantial part of differences in rates of problem drinking and negative consequences of drinking between the three countries.
These empirical data confirm high levels of alcohol related problems in Russia despite low volume of drinking. The binge drinking pattern partly explains this paradoxical finding. Overall alcohol consumption does not suffice as an estimate of alcohol related problems at the population level.
Notes
Cites: Addiction. 1999 Jun;94(6):857-6610665075
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Apr;28(2):219-2410342682
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 May;54(5):328-3210814651
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Jan 1;153(1):64-7111159148
Cites: Addiction. 2001 Feb;96 Suppl 1:S59-7511228079
Cites: Addiction. 2001 Feb;96 Suppl 1:S77-9211228080
Cites: J Subst Abuse. 2000;12(1-2):33-4911288473
Cites: Addiction. 2001 Jul;96(7):987-9511440608
Cites: Eur Addict Res. 2001 Aug;7(3):128-3711509843
Cites: Eur Addict Res. 2001 Aug;7(3):138-4711509844
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Feb 1;155(3):242-811821249
Cites: Lancet. 2002 Nov 9;360(9344):1448-5412433511
Cites: Addiction. 2003 Mar;98(3):369-7012603237
Cites: Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1966 Feb;56(2):237-425948218
Cites: Scand J Soc Med. 1977;5(3):115-21594705
Cites: JAMA. 1984 Oct 12;252(14):1905-76471323
Cites: Br J Addict. 1988 Sep;83(9):1019-303066418
Cites: Addiction. 1995 Apr;90(4):499-5137773113
Cites: J Stud Alcohol. 1998 Jan;59(1):122-49498324
Cites: J Stud Alcohol. 1999 Mar;60(2):203-810091958
Cites: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000 Feb 1;58(1-2):133-4210669064
PubMed ID
14966239 View in PubMed
Less detail

Death from liver disease in a cohort of injecting opioid users in a Swedish city in relation to registration for opioid substitution therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290142
Source
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2017 05; 36(3):424-431
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2017
Author
Anna Jerkeman
Anders Håkansson
Rebecca Rylance
Philippe Wagner
Marianne Alanko Blomé
Per Björkman
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Section for Infectious Diseases, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2017 05; 36(3):424-431
Date
05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Liver Diseases - diagnosis - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Needle-Exchange Programs - trends
Opiate Substitution Treatment - mortality - trends
Opioid-Related Disorders - diagnosis - mortality
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - diagnosis - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population - trends
Young Adult
Abstract
Injecting opioid users are at elevated risk of death. Although liver disease (especially hepatitis C) is common, its impact on mortality is low in active injectors. Because opioid substitution therapy (OST) reduces the risk of death from directly drug related causes, we hypothesised that the proportion of liver-related deaths would increase in subjects receiving OST. We investigated liver-related mortality in a cohort of injecting opioid users attending a needle exchange program (NEP) in a Swedish city in relation to OST exposure.
Participants enrolled in the NEP between 1987 and 2011 with available national identity numbers, and registered use of opioids, were included. Linkage based on national identity numbers was performed with national registers for death, emigration and prescription of OST. Participants were categorised as non-OST recipients until the registered date of first OST prescription, and hence as OST recipients. Hazard ratios were calculated by Cox regression for overall and liver-related mortality in relation to OST, with OST as a time-dependent variable.
Among 4494 NEP participants, 1488 opioid users were identified; 711/1488 had been prescribed OST. During a follow-up period of 15?546 person-years 368 deaths occurred. Sixteen deaths were caused by liver disease; 10 of these occurred in OST recipients. The risk of liver-related death was significantly increased in OST receiving participants (hazard ratio 3.08, 95% confidence interval [1.09, 8.68], P?=?0.03).
Liver related mortality among opioid users was significantly elevated in OST recipients, showing the long-term importance of chronic liver disease in this population. [Jerkeman A, Håkansson A, Rylance R, Wagner P, Alanko Blomé M, Björkman P. Death from liver disease in a cohort of injecting opioid users in a Swedish city in relation to registration for opioid substitution therapy. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:424-431].
PubMed ID
27241955 View in PubMed
Less detail

Epidemiological, social and psychiatric aspects in self-poisoned patients. A prospective comparative study from Trondheim, Norway between 1978 and 1987.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12051
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1991 Mar;26(2):53-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1991
Author
T. Rygnestad
L. Hauge
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1991 Mar;26(2):53-62
Date
Mar-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Comparative Study
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Overdose - mortality
Poisoning - mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Rural Population - trends
Suicide - trends
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
A prospective study of an unselected group of patients admitted in a Medical Department in 1978 (n = 257) and 1987 (n = 361) after deliberate self-poisoning is presented. The rate increased significantly over the period of the study (P less than 0.05). Family problems, unemployment, poor social conditions and alcohol and drug abuse had increased. The main psychiatric diagnosis was neurosis. From 1978 to 1987 "abuse" had increased substantially. The 10-year mortality rate was 4.5 and 4.1 times the expected value for female and male patients, respectively. We conclude that social and psychiatric problems are increasing and that the treatment of these patients today is far from satisfactory.
PubMed ID
2047904 View in PubMed
Less detail

Epidemiologic characteristics and time trend in the prevalence of anotia and microtia in China.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277810
Source
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2016 Feb;106(2):88-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Kui Deng
Li Dai
Ling Yi
Changfei Deng
Xiaohong Li
Jun Zhu
Source
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2016 Feb;106(2):88-94
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
China - epidemiology
Congenital Microtia - epidemiology
Ear - abnormalities
Female
France - epidemiology
Humans
Italy - epidemiology
Male
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Urban Population - trends
Young Adult
Abstract
Previous studies have shown an inconsistent time trend on the prevalence of anotia and microtia. Little has been reported on the epidemiologic characteristics of anotia and microtia in the Chinese population.
Data from 1996-2007 were obtained from the Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Network in China. Birth prevalence of anotia and microtia were assessed according to demographic characteristics and annual time trend. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for selected demographic characteristics and subgroups of anotia and microtia.
A total of 1933 cases with anotia/microtia were identified among 6,308,594 live births, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancy, yielding a rate of 3.06 per 10,000 births. Isolated anotia/microtia had a prevalence of 2.25 per 10,000 births, whereas among nonisolated cases, the prevalence was 0.81 per 10,000 births. The prevalence rates of anotia/microtia increased significantly during 1996-2007 (p?
PubMed ID
26681129 View in PubMed
Less detail

Factors influencing Internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270898
Source
Health Informatics J. 2015 Sep;21(3):237-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Jessica Berner
Mikael Rennemark
Claes Jogréus
Peter Anderberg
Anders Sköldunger
Maria Wahlberg
Sölve Elmståhl
Johan Berglund
Source
Health Informatics J. 2015 Sep;21(3):237-49
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Humans
Internet - trends - utilization
Male
Rural Population - trends
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption; a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-care solutions. Older adults' Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. The sample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated with age, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living. Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts. Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well as living with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid the exclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet.
PubMed ID
24567416 View in PubMed
Less detail

Impact of residence on prevalence and intensity of prescription drug use among older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167104
Source
Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;40(11):1932-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Anita G Carrie
Ruby E Grymonpre
Audrey A Blandford
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. acarrie@pharmacy.ualberta.ca
Source
Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;40(11):1932-8
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Drug Prescriptions
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Manitoba
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Prevalence
Rural Population - trends
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
Higher levels of morbidity among older adults result in greater need for pharmaceutical products and pharmacy services compared with the need in the general population. Rural residents reportedly have reduced access to healthcare services secondary to transportation difficulties, a limited supply of healthcare workers and facilities, and financial constraints.
To examine differences in the prevalence and intensity of prescription pharmaceutical use among urban and rural older adults in Manitoba, Canada.
Participant data from the 1996/1997 Manitoba Study of Health and Aging were linked to pharmaceutical claims data recorded in Manitoba Health's Drug Program Information Network. The effect of residence on the prevalence and intensity of drug use was determined, in addition to the effects of other sociodemographic characteristics, measures of health, and health service utilization.
The prevalence of prescription pharmaceutical use did not differ between urban and rural residents (90.6% vs 89.5%, respectively; p = 0.60). Users of home-care services (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.09 to 3.39), those who perceived their income as adequate (2.38; 95% CI 1.09 to 5.17), and those with a higher number of chronic health problems (1.42; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.62) were significantly more likely to access prescription medications. Rural and urban residents were equally likely to be high users of prescription drugs (21.3% vs 20.0%, respectively; p = 0.64).
Poor health status is associated with a higher prevalence and intensity of use of prescription drugs among older Manitobans. Rural residence is not a barrier to receipt of prescription pharmaceuticals.
PubMed ID
17032906 View in PubMed
Less detail

Invited commentary: taking the search for causes of schizophrenia to a different level.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169424
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):979-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-2006
Author
Dana March
Ezra Susser
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):979-81
Date
Jun-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Birth Order
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Family
Registries
Risk factors
Rural Population - trends
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Social Environment
Urban Population - trends
Abstract
In recent years, epidemiologists have established major variations in the incidence of schizophrenia and have begun to investigate the causes of these variations. The report by Pedersen and Mortensen (Am J Epidemiol 2006;163:971-8) in this issue of the Journal examines the contribution of family-level factors to the urban-rural difference in the incidence of schizophrenia. Their results suggest that familial life in urban environments confers some effect that persists after families move to rural settings. Taking these findings together with those of previous studies, it appears that factors operating at the level of the social context, the family, and the individual may all contribute to the urban-rural difference in schizophrenia incidence. This work exemplifies an integrative, multilevel approach to epidemiologic research that employs principles central to eco-epidemiology and other, similar frameworks.
Notes
Comment On: Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1;163(11):971-816675535
PubMed ID
16675534 View in PubMed
Less detail

Living in a well-serviced urban area is associated with maintenance of frequent walking among seniors in the VoisiNuAge study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128159
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2012 Jan;67(1):76-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Lise Gauvin
Lucie Richard
Yan Kestens
Bryna Shatenstein
Mark Daniel
Spencer D Moore
Geneviève Mercille
Hélène Payette
Author Affiliation
Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. lise.gauvin.2@umontreal.ca
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2012 Jan;67(1):76-88
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Health Behavior
Health Care Surveys - economics - trends
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Models, Psychological
Quebec
Residence Characteristics - classification
Social Perception
Social Support
Time Factors
Urban Population - trends
Walking - physiology - psychology - trends
Abstract
This paper examined whether or not closer proximity to local services and amenities was associated with maintenance of more frequent walking over time among urban-dwelling seniors over and above individual-level characteristics.
A sample of 521 adults who were part of the VoisiNuAge study and who resided in a large North American urban area reported on the frequency of walking outside the home over a 3-year period and on their health, sociodemographic characteristics, social support and resources, and perceptions of different features of their residential environment. Information about the distance between their home and 16 services and amenities was obtained from a geographic information system. Seniors were then classified into quartiles of proximity (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4).
Unadjusted and adjusted ordinal growth curve models showed that closer proximity to services and amenities was associated with greater likelihood of frequent walking at all times throughout the 3-year period.
Findings are consistent with the notion that environments may act as buoys for the maintenance of important health behaviors. Future experimental and quasi-experimental research is required to explore whether or not the environment can play a causal role in influencing patterns of walking over time.
PubMed ID
22227735 View in PubMed
Less detail

18 records – page 1 of 2.