The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
To analyse the possible changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity comparing birth cohorts from four different decades in Finland.
A retrospective longitudinal growth study.
The subjects representing five birth cohorts: 1974 (n = 1109), 1981 (n = 987), 1991 (n = 586), 1995 (n = 856) and 2001 (n = 766) in the city of Tampere and three rural municipalities in Finland. Data included five consecutive height and weight measurements from 2 to 15 years of age. Normal weight, overweight and obesity at the time points were classified by body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2) ) according to international age- and gender-specific BMI cut-off points. The chi-square test was used to analyse the differences in the between birth cohorts.
The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased significantly in 2-year-old boys (p = 0.009) and girls (p = 0.002) from 1974 to 2001. Insignificant fluctuation was seen in 5- and 7-year-old children. Both the prevalence of obesity and the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity showed a significant increase in 12- (p = 0.031 and p
Gastrointestinal illness is an important global public health issue, even in developed countries, where the morbidity and economic impact are significant. Our objective was to evaluate the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness in Canadians.
We used data from two population-based studies conducted in select communities between 2001 and 2003. Together, the studies comprised 8,108 randomly selected respondents; proxies were used for all respondents under 12 years and for respondents under 19 years at the discretion of the parent or guardian. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, we evaluated the following demographic determinants: age, gender, cultural group, and urban/rural status of the respondent, highest education level of the respondent or proxy, number of people in the household, and total annual household income. Two-way interaction terms were included in the multivariate analyses. The final multivariate model included income, age, gender, and the interaction between income and gender.
After adjusting for income, gender, and their interaction, children under 10 years had the highest risk of acute gastrointestinal illness, followed by young adults aged 20 to 24 years. For males, the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was similar across all income levels, but for females the risk was much higher in the lowest income category. Specifically, in those with total annual household incomes of less than $20,000, the odds of acute gastrointestinal illness were 2.46 times higher in females than in males.
Understanding the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness is essential in order to identify vulnerable groups to which intervention and prevention efforts can be targeted.
This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (Fridstrøm, 2000; Elvik and Kaminska, 2011) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002 to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function (dose-response curve), relating the size of changes in the number of accident to the size of the change in the use of studded tyres. Accidents during the season when the use of studded tyres is permitted were found to increase by about 5 percent if the use of studded tyres was reduced by 25 percentage points (e.g. from 50 to 25 percent) and to decline by about 2 percent when the use of studded tyres increased by 20 percentage points.
We investigated differences in smoking prevalence between urban and non-urban area of residence in six Western European countries (Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, Italy and Spain), and smoking prevalence trends over the period 1985-2000. In most countries, smoking prevalence was highest in urban areas, and increased with urbanization. Urban/non-urban inequalities were most pronounced among individuals with low education levels, and also among females. There were no significant differences in annual rate of change in smoking prevalence between non-urban and urban areas.
The reasons of high mortality and of low life expectancy among Russian citizens as well as their sharp fluctuations observed in the 90-ies were explained differently by researchers, however, no attempt was made to analyze the impact made by a huge inflow of immigrant from the republics of the former USSR and "close abroad" in any case studies. In this paper we point at the fact that the mortality statistics and life expectancy in Moscow were influenced, at least for as long as 12 years, by a systemic error, which made the mortality index higher and the life expectancy lower, among Muscovites, due to overestimates of the absolute number of died Muscovites and to underestimates of the city residents. The 2001 life expectancy of men and women in Moscow calculated on the basis of data, from which non-residents who died in the capital were deleted, was 64.7 and 75.0, respectively, but not 61.7 and 73.5 as represented by the official statistics. The maximum negative effect of death cases of non-residents exerted on the life expectancy coincides with the overall mortality peak value in Moscow: life expectancy of Muscovites for 1994 estimated without accounting of the mortality rate for non-residents turned out to be 3.2 years higher for men and 1.5 years higher for women. Supposedly, the Russian mortality statistics is not nation-wide in line with the actual state of affairs. However, the influence of the discussed systemic error in Russia's regions can be expected to be less pronounced since the level of immigration in Moscow is most probably by far higher.
Few Canadian studies have studied re-emergent pertussis in rural areas. This study described the epidemiology of pertussis in the rural areas of the Saskatoon Regional Health Authority in Saskatchewan, and comparisons were made to the City of Saskatoon.
Analyses were based on passive surveillance data collected between 1995 and 2003. Estimates of the cumulative incidence (per 10,000 population) measured the occurrence of pertussis. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to compare a case's time until disease from their last vaccination by different vaccine types (whole-cell (WCV), or acellular (ACV)) and vaccine histories (complete or partial). Epidemic curves identified peaks in the incidence and checked for seasonal variation in case reporting.
Over the 9-year period, 1,135 cases were reported. Rural areas had higher incidence rates and lower proportions of cases vaccinated than urban areas. Overall, the highest age-specific incidence was observed in people aged 10-19 years. Cases aged 0-9 years vaccinated with the ACV, from both rural and urban areas, presented a shorter time to disease (14 months (95% CI: 13-16) and 17 months (95% CI: 11-21), respectively) when compared to cases vaccinated with the WCV (47 months (95% CI: 40-51) and 36 months (95% CI: 31-41), respectively), or with a combination of the two vaccines (40 months (95% CI: 27-47) and 44 months (95% CI: 36-51), respectively, p
Previous studies have shown a positive association between unemployment and attempted suicide. This study investigated transitions of employment status among suicide attempters during the severe economic recession. The main research question was whether inequality in the labour market also prevails among as selected a population as suicide attempters. The material consisted of 2495 persons who attempted suicide during 1989-1994 in Helsinki, Finland. Logistic regression analysis and survival analysis were used. Unemployment rates among suicide attempters were higher than in the general population, male rates being higher than female rates throughout the recession. There were significant changes in the employment status of the entire attempted suicide population from 1989 to 1994, especially in terms of the transition from employment to unemployment. Gender, age and education level predicted exit from the labour market. Among suicide attempters young middle-aged men with low education had the highest risk of unemployment.
The dynamics of mental health of the population of the Altai Territory evaluated within a ten-year study (1991-2000) revealed pronounced negative processes with the most essential ones being in the children and teenagers category. The complicated social-and-economic transformations conducted in Russian society during the last decade of the past century, which entailed the misadjusted response in a majority of population, exerted an unfavorable influence on the mental health condition. The authors suggested a system of measures and arrangements targeted at neutralizing the detected negative trends in the population mental health; the above system can be successfully used in any country's region.