Before 1981 no representative studies of oral health in an elderly population in northern Sweden had been presented, and longitudinal studies of oral health in the aging person were in general rare. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal changes in oral health in a representative sample of an elderly city population in northern Sweden. Reported oral problems and treatment needs were noted, and dental and periodontal status was registered in clinical examinations. The frequency of reported annual dental visits and of being called by the dentist increased in the younger but not in the older cohort during the 9-year period. In 1990 all the 79- and 88-year-olds with annual visits reported that they were recalled by the dentist. The clinical investigation showed an increasing amount of tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease with increasing age. Among dentulous persons 1.7 teeth per subject were lost from 1981 to 1990 in the younger cohort, compared with 2.6 teeth per subject in the older cohort. The number of sound teeth decreased very little in the younger cohort (from 3.44 to 3.34) but more evidently in the older cohort (from 3.47 to 2.65) during the 9-year period. The frequency of surfaces with attachment level > 3 mm increased statistically significantly from 1981 to 1990 in the older cohort. Subjects with annual visits had in general fewer oral problems.
This paper examines access to and use of the physician resources for ambulatory care by residents of Winnipeg and rural areas in Manitoba. Analyses were conducted on physician claims submitted to Manitoba Health in the fiscal years 1986-87 and 1991-92. The percentage of people who made contact with physicians, the number of visits per 100 residents, and the number of visits per user were used to asses changes between 1986 and 1991. There were important variations between residents of Winnipeg and the rural regions in access to and use of physicians' services across the years, and by physician specially. These variations accompanied a decrease in physician supply in the province.
This paper considers the ways in which accounts from Glasgow Catholics diverge from those of Protestants and explores the reasons why people leave jobs, including health grounds. Accounts reveal experiences distinctive to Catholics, of health-threatening stress, obstacles to career progression within (mainly) private-sector organisations, and interactional difficulties which create particular problems for (mainly) middle class men. This narrows the employment options for upwardly mobile Catholics, who may then resort to self-employment or other similarly stressful options. The paper considers whether the competence of Catholics or Catholic cultural factors are implicated in thwarting social mobility among Catholics or, alternatively, whether institutional sectarianism is involved. We conclude that, of these options, theories of institutional sectarianism provide the hypothesis which currently best fits these data. In Glasgow, people of indigenous Irish descent are recognisable from their names and Catholic background and are identified as Catholic by others. Overt historical exclusion of Catholics from middle class employment options now seems to take unrecognised forms in routine assumptions and practices which restrict Catholic employment opportunities. It is argued that younger Catholics use education to overcome the obstacles to mobility faced by older people and circumvent exclusions by recourse to middle class public-sector employment. This paper aims to link historical, structural and sectarian patterns of employment experience to accounts of health and work, and in so doing to contribute to an explanation for the relatively poor health of Catholic Glaswegians with Irish roots.
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
This study examines the effects of age and sex on the relationship between neighborhood income and alcohol-related hospitalization rates in a large urban area.
Adults in Toronto, Canada, who were hospitalized with an alcohol-related condition between 1995 and 1998 were identified using discharge diagnoses. Income quintiles were determined based on area of residence. Annual rates of hospitalization for alcohol-related conditions per 10,000 individuals were calculated.
Rates of hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of an alcohol-related condition were similar among men age 20 to 39 in all incomes quintiles, but were inversely associated with income among men age 40 to 64 (28.8 and 13.3 per 10,000 in the lowest and highest income quintiles). Among women age 40 to 64, the lowest income quintile had the highest hospitalization rate (12.1 per 10,000), but women in all other income quintiles had relatively low hospitalization rates (5.9 to 7.7 per 10,000). As age increased above 65 years, rates of hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of an alcohol-related condition decreased or stabilized in both men and women.
The inverse association between income level and alcohol-related hospitalization rates becomes apparent after age 40. A gradient in hospitalization rates is seen in men across all income levels, but in women a prominent effect is seen only in those with the lowest income.
The hypothesis that exposure to traffic-related air pollution increases the risk of developing cancer during childhood was investigated. The authors enrolled 1,989 children reported to the Danish Cancer Registry with a diagnosis of leukemia, tumor of the central nervous system, or malignant lymphoma during 1968-1991 and 5,506 control children selected at random from the entire childhood population. The residential histories of the children were traced from 9 months before birth until the time of diagnosis of the cases and a similar period for the controls. For each of the 18,440 identified addresses, information on traffic and the configuration of streets and buildings was collected. Average concentrations of benzene and nitrogen dioxide (indicators of traffic-related air pollution) were calculated for the relevant period, and exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and during childhood were calculated separately. The risks of leukemia, central nervous system tumors, and all selected cancers combined were not linked to exposure to benzene or nitrogen dioxide during either period. The risk of lymphomas increased by 25% (p for trend = 0.06) and 51% (p for trend = 0.05) for a doubling of the concentration of benzene and nitrogen dioxide, respectively, during the pregnancy. The association was restricted to Hodgkin's disease.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is an important determinant of the high and fluctuating adult mortality rates in Russia, but cause-specific detail is lacking. Our case-control study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on male and female cause-specific mortality. METHODS: In three Russian industrial cities with typical 1990s mortality patterns (Tomsk, Barnaul, Biysk), the addresses of 60,416 residents who had died at ages 15-74 years in 1990-2001 were visited in 2001-05. Family members were present for 50,066 decedents; for 48,557 (97%), the family gave proxy information on the decedents' past alcohol use and on potentially confounding factors. Cases (n=43,082) were those certified as dying from causes we judged beforehand might be substantially affected by alcohol or tobacco; controls were the other 5475 decedents. Case versus control relative risks (RRs; calculated as odds ratios by confounder-adjusted logistic regression) were calculated in ever-drinkers, defining the reference category by two criteria: usual weekly consumption always less than 0.5 half-litre bottles of vodka (or equivalent in total alcohol content) and maximum consumption of spirits in 1 day always less than 0.5 half-litre bottles. Other ever-drinkers were classified by usual weekly consumption into three categories: less than one, one to less than three, and three or more (mean 5.4 [SD 1.4]) bottles of vodka or equivalent. FINDINGS: In men, the three causes accounting for the most alcohol-associated deaths were accidents and violence (RR 5.94, 95% CI 5.35-6.59, in the highest consumption category), alcohol poisoning (21.68, 17.94-26.20), and acute ischaemic heart disease other than myocardial infarction (3.04, 2.73-3.39), which includes some misclassified alcohol poisoning. There were significant excesses of upper aerodigestive tract cancer (3.48, 2.84-4.27) and liver cancer (2.11, 1.64-2.70). Another five disease groups had RRs of more than 3.00 in the highest alcohol category: tuberculosis (4.14, 3.44-4.98), pneumonia (3.29, 2.83-3.83), liver disease (6.21, 5.16-7.47), pancreatic disease (6.69, 4.98-9.00), and ill-specified conditions (7.74, 6.48-9.25). Although drinking was less common in women, the RRs associated with it were generally more extreme. After correction for reporting errors, alcohol-associated excesses accounted for 52% of all study deaths at ages 15-54 years (men 8182 [59%] of 13968, women 1565 [33%] of 4751) and 18% of those at 55-74 years (men 3944 [22%] of 17,536, women 1493 [12%] of 12 302). Allowance for under-representation of extreme drinkers would further increase alcohol-associated proportions. Large fluctuations in mortality from these ten strongly alcohol-associated causes were the main determinants of recent fluctuations in overall mortality in the study region and in Russia as a whole. INTERPRETATION: Alcohol-attributable mortality varies by year; in several recent years, alcohol was a cause of more than half of all Russian deaths at ages 15-54 years. Alcohol accounts for most of the large fluctuations in Russian mortality, and alcohol and tobacco account for the large difference in adult mortality between Russia and western Europe. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, British Heart Foundation, International Agency for Research on Cancer, and European Commission Directorate-General for Research.
Comment In: Lancet. 2009 Jun 27;373(9682):2176-719560585
The paper gives hygienic characteristics of ambient air pollution and examines human health in the town of Nizhnekamsk. There are worse demographic indices. In the structure of morbidity, respiratory diseases make up the largest proportion (44.4%), injuries and poisoning rank next (16.9%), skin and skin fate occupy the third place (5.4%). There are the highest morbidity rates in the polluted areas of the town. In these areas, respiratory allergoses (preasthma and bronchial asthma) occur more frequently than in the controls.
The aim of this survey study with 7,083 male respondents was to examine the association between socioeconomic, health and health behavioural risk indicators and fractures. In the multivariate regression model, fractures were associated strongest with frequency of drunkenness, regular sports training, frequent use of health care services and obesity.
Little is known about the risk factors for fractures in young adults. Our aim was to identify the association between socioeconomic background, health and health behaviours and fractures.
The survey sample comprised 7,378 conscript males (median age 19), of which 7,083 (96%) answered. The outcome was self-reported fracture. Associations between 20 background variables and fractures were analysed with logistic regression.
Altogether 2,456 (34.7%) participants reported fracture(s) during their lifetime. The most common anatomical locations of fracture were the forearm, the hand and the ankle. The strongest risk indicators for fractures were frequent drunkenness (OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.0), regular sports training (OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.3-1.9), frequent use of health care services (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.8) and obesity (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9).
This is among the first studies to describe risk indicators for fractures in young adults. The strongest risk factors for fractures were associated with health damaging behaviour, high-intensity physical activity and use of health care services. Of socioeconomic background factors, only living in the capital city area was associated with fractures. Preventive measures should be targeted at the males frequently using health care services or actively participating in sports.