In Lvov and Cracow at the times of World War I, the infectious diseases such as tuberculosis followed by typhus fever, typhoid fever, dysentery, as well as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, smallpox, cholera and venereal diseases (particularly syphilis) posed one of the most significant and dangerous problems for inhabitants. Their increased prevalence was the result of deteriorating sanitary and living conditions of the city population. The spread of epidemic infectious diseases was enhanced by marching troops, migration of civilians and war prisoners, return of large groups of displaced people and demobilized soldiers after regaining independence in November 1918. Additionally, unfavorable epidemiological situation in Lvov deteriorated at the time of the war with Ukrainians (November 1918-April 1919) and Bolsheviks (July-August 1920). The control of infectious diseases was in the hands of regional local physicians who referred patients to hospitals, isolated homes, bath and disinfection institutions, and conducted vaccinations against smallpox. A decrease in infectious diseases prevalence and deaths to the prewar levels occurred in 1922.
Temporal variations in the stillbirth rate among singletons, twins and triplets in Sweden between 1869 and 1967 were studied. Both among single and multiple births there were marked secular decreasing trends in the stillbirth rates. Based on our long time series since 1869, this study confirms that among twins and triplets the stillbirth rate was higher among same-sexed than among opposite-sexed sets. Comparisons between the stillbirth rates among twin births in urban and rural regions indicate higher stillbirth rates in rural areas. In addition, the stillbirth rates among twins of unmarried mothers were higher than those of twins of married mothers. These findings also hold for both same-sexed and opposite-sexed twin pairs. Analyses of the stillbirth rates for singletons and for different types of twins indicate that up to 1950 the risk of stillbirth among males was almost constantly between 15% to 20% higher than among females. After that the difference in the risk decreased. Comparisons with other populations were performed.
First municipal sanitary stations in Russia were founded in 1891 in the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg. They were financed by municipal public self-governments. With performing essential laboratory tests and studies, stations were an important element of the organization of sanitary inspection in cities. In the article there is considered the history of the creation offirst sanitary stations and main directions of their activity: control in the sphere offood trade and in the sphere of municipal water supply.
In the nineteenth century legislation concerning health care in Greece did not differ from that in the Netherlands, derived as it was from the French example in both cases. This article contains a comparison of the organisation and the effects of (public) health care in the Dutch city of Groningen and the Greek city of Piraeus, cities which in the course of the nineteenth century reached about the same size. It shows that on the local level, in spite of the convergence in national legislation, there were large differences in the way (public) health care was distributed and in the acceptation by the public. This was for example reflected in different death ratios.
Despite extensive literature on the nature and impact of gentrification, there has been little consideration of the effects of gentrification on ethnic neighbourhoods. This study evaluates the negative and positive effects of gentrification on the Portuguese in west central Toronto. Details concerning the settlement patterns of the Portuguese, the characteristics of Portuguese residents and patterns of gentrification in inner-city Toronto were obtained from census data. Evaluations of neighbourhood change and attitudes of the residents towards gentrification were obtained from key informant and focus group interviews. The results suggest considerable ambivalence among the respondents, but most agreed that the long-term viability of Little Portugal as an immigrant reception area with a good supply of low-cost housing is in doubt.