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Aboriginal urbanization and rights in Canada: examining implications for health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115712
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Aug;91:219-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Laura C Senese
Kathi Wilson
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography & Program in Planning, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Room 5047, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada. laura.senese@utoronto.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Aug;91:219-28
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Canada
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Health Status Disparities
Human Rights
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Prejudice - ethnology
Qualitative Research
Urban Health - ethnology
Urbanization
Young Adult
Abstract
Urbanization among Indigenous peoples is growing globally. This has implications for the assertion of Indigenous rights in urban areas, as rights are largely tied to land bases that generally lie outside of urban areas. Through their impacts on the broader social determinants of health, the links between Indigenous rights and urbanization may be related to health. Focusing on a Canadian example, this study explores relationships between Indigenous rights and urbanization, and the ways in which they are implicated in the health of urban Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Canada. In-depth interviews focused on conceptions of and access to Aboriginal rights in the city, and perceived links with health, were conduced with 36 Aboriginal people who had moved to Toronto from a rural/reserve area. Participants conceived of Aboriginal rights largely as the rights to specific services/benefits and to respect for Aboriginal cultures/identities. There was a widespread perception among participants that these rights are not respected in Canada, and that this is heightened when living in an urban area. Disrespect for Aboriginal rights was perceived to negatively impact health by way of social determinants of health (e.g., psychosocial health impacts of discrimination experienced in Toronto). The paper discusses the results in the context of policy implications and future areas of research.
PubMed ID
23474122 View in PubMed
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Association between sucrose intake and acute coronary event risk and effect modification by lifestyle factors: Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282792
Source
Br J Nutr. 2016 Nov;116(9):1611-1620
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
K. Warfa
I. Drake
P. Wallström
G. Engström
E. Sonestedt
Source
Br J Nutr. 2016 Nov;116(9):1611-1620
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cohort Studies
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Diet - adverse effects - ethnology
Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Energy Intake - ethnology
Feeding Behavior - ethnology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Healthy Lifestyle
Humans
Incidence
Life Style - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology - ethnology - etiology - prevention & control
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk factors
Self Report
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Health - ethnology
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables). We performed a prospective analysis on 26 190 individuals (62 % women) free from diabetes and without a history of CVD from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Over an average of 17 years of follow-up (457 131 person-years), 2493 incident cases of coronary events were identified. Sucrose intake was obtained from an interview-based diet history method, including 7-d records of prepared meals and cold beverages and a 168-item diet questionnaire covering other foods. Participants who consumed >15 % of their energy intake (E%) from sucrose showed a 37 (95 % CI 13, 66) % increased risk of a coronary event compared with the lowest sucrose consumers (
PubMed ID
27774913 View in PubMed
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Evaluating a diabetes self-management support peer leader training programme for the English- and Punjabi-speaking South-Asian community in Vancouver.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115452
Source
Diabet Med. 2013 Jun;30(6):746-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
T S Tang
P S Sohal
A K Garg
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. tricia.tang@vch.ca
Source
Diabet Med. 2013 Jun;30(6):746-52
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
British Columbia
Cohort Studies
Community Health Workers - education
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - ethnology - therapy
Feasibility Studies
Health Behavior - ethnology
Humans
India - ethnology
Language
Leadership
Middle Aged
Pakistan - ethnology
Patient Education as Topic
Patient Satisfaction - ethnology
Peer Group
Pilot Projects
Self Care
Social Support
Urban Health - ethnology
Abstract
The purpose of this single-cohort study was to implement and evaluate a programme that trains peers to deliver a diabetes self-management support programme for South-Asian adults with Type 2 diabetes and to assess the perceived efficacy of and satisfaction with this programme.
We recruited eight South-Asian adults who completed a 20-h peer-leader training programme conducted over five sessions (4 h per session). The programme used multiple instructional methods (quizzes, group brainstorming, skill building, group sharing, role-play and facilitation simulation) and provided communication, facilitation, and behaviour change skills training. To graduate, participants were required to achieve the pre-established competency criteria in four training domains: active listening, empowerment-based facilitation, five-step behavioural goal-setting, and self-efficacy. Participants were given three attempts to pass each competency domain.
On the first attempt six (75%), eight (100%), five (63%) and five (63%) participants passed active listening, empowerment-based facilitation, five-step behavioural goal-setting, and self-efficacy, respectively. Those participants who did not pass a competency domain on the first attempt were successful in passing on the second attempt. As a result, all eight participants graduated from the training programme and became peer leaders. Satisfaction ratings for programme length, balance between content and skills development, and preparation for leading support activities were uniformly high. Ratings for the instructional methods ranged between effective and very effective.
Findings suggest it is feasible to train and graduate peer leaders with the necessary skills to facilitate a diabetes self-management support intervention.
PubMed ID
23506520 View in PubMed
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Fibre intake and incident colorectal cancer depending on fibre source, sex, tumour location and Tumour, Node, Metastasis stage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272508
Source
Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 28;114(6):959-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-28-2015
Author
Alexandra Vulcan
Jenny Brändstedt
Jonas Manjer
Karin Jirström
Bodil Ohlsson
Ulrika Ericson
Source
Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 28;114(6):959-69
Date
Sep-28-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cohort Studies
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - pathology - prevention & control
Dietary Fiber - therapeutic use
Edible Grain
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Fruit
Functional Food
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Staging
Nutrition Surveys
Prospective Studies
Rectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - pathology - prevention & control
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Health - ethnology
Vegetables
Abstract
Studies on fibre intake and incident colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate inverse associations. Differences by tumour stage have not been examined. We examined associations between fibre intake and its sources, and incidental CRC. Separate analyses were carried out on the basis of sex, tumour location and the Tumour, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a population-based cohort study, including individuals aged 45-74 years. Dietary data were collected through a modified diet history method. The TNM classification was obtained from pathology/clinical records and re-evaluated. Among 27 931 individuals (60% women), we found 728 incident CRC cases during 428 924 person-years of follow-up. Fibre intake was inversely associated with CRC risk (P(trend) = 0.026). Concerning colon cancer, we observed borderline interaction between fibre intake and sex (P = 0.052) and significant protective association restricted to women (P(trend) = 0.013). Intake of fruits and berries was inversely associated with colon cancer in women (P(trend) = 0.022). We also observed significant interactions between intakes of fibre (P = 0.048) and vegetables (P = 0.039) and sex on rectal cancer, but no significant associations were seen between intake of fibre, or its sources, in either of the sexes. Except for inverse associations between intake of fibre-rich cereal products and N0- and M0-tumours, we did not observe significant associations with different TNM stages. Our findings suggest different associations between fibre intake and CRC depending on sex, tumour site and fibre source. High fibre intake, especially from fruits and berries, may, above all, prevent tumour development in the colon in women. No clear differences by TNM classification were detected.
PubMed ID
26281852 View in PubMed
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Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113658
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Jul;88:1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Cheryl L Currie
T Cameron Wild
Donald P Schopflocher
Lory Laing
Paul Veugelers
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lethbridge, M3083 Markin Hall, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1K 3M4. cheryl.currie@uleth.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Jul;88:1-9
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Prescription Drugs
Resilience, Psychological
Risk factors
Street Drugs
Substance-Related Disorders - ethnology
Urban Health - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal cultural practices and beliefs may promote and protect Aboriginal health in an urban environment.
PubMed ID
23702204 View in PubMed
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Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123139
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2013 Sep;29(3):393-415
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Cheryl L Currie
T Cameron Wild
Donald P Schopflocher
Lory Laing
Paul Veugelers
Brenda Parlee
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lethbridge, M3083 Markin Hall, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4, Canada. cheryl.currie@uleth.ca
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2013 Sep;29(3):393-415
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Behavior, Addictive - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Gambling - ethnology - psychology
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Racism - ethnology - psychology
Risk factors
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - ethnology
Urban Health - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.
PubMed ID
22730152 View in PubMed
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Right to a healthy city? Examining the relationship between urban space and health inequity by Aboriginal youth artist-activists in Winnipeg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115379
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Aug;91:210-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Emily Skinner
Jeffrey R Masuda
Author Affiliation
School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, PO Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2, Canada. emily.skinner@dal.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Aug;91:210-8
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Art
Canada
Cities
Community-Based Participatory Research
Geography, Medical
Health Status Disparities
Human Rights
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Quality of Life
Risk assessment
Social Isolation
Urban Health - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper explores the relationship between place and health inequity as experienced by Aboriginal youth living in Winnipeg, Canada. Between 2010 and 2011, a team of youth (N = 8) associated with a community-based Aboriginal youth arts program undertook a participatory community mapping process in order to link their personal health geographies to their right to the city. The results demonstrated several ways in which place, mobility, and boundaries affected their health experiences and, in turn, reflected their perceptions of health inequity. The study confirms that urban spaces can produce, and are produced by, highly racialized geographies that work to socially isolate, segregate, and immobilize Aboriginal youth while concomitantly increasing their exposure to higher risks to their health and well being.
PubMed ID
23514744 View in PubMed
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Underestimating a serving size may lead to increased food consumption when using Canada's Food Guide.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122135
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Oct;37(5):923-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Sharona L Abramovitch
Jacinta I Reddigan
Mazen J Hamadeh
Veronica K Jamnik
Chip P Rowan
Jennifer L Kuk
Author Affiliation
School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Oct;37(5):923-30
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
African Continental Ancestry Group
Aged
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Diet - adverse effects - ethnology
Energy Intake - ethnology
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Food Habits - ethnology
Health promotion
Humans
Hyperphagia - ethnology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Policy
Nutritional Sciences - education
Ontario
Patient Compliance - ethnology
Patient Education as Topic
Urban Health - ethnology
Abstract
It is unclear whether Canadians accurately estimate serving sizes and the number of servings in their diet as intended by Canada's Food Guide (CFG). The objective of this study was to determine if participants can accurately quantify the size of 1 serving and the number of servings consumed per day. White, Black, South Asian, and East Asian adults (n = 145) estimated the quantity of food that constituted 1 CFG serving, and used CFG to estimate the number of servings that they consumed from their 24-h dietary recall. Participants estimated 1 serving size of vegetables and fruit (+43%) and grains (+55%) to be larger than CFG serving sizes (p = 0.05); meat alternatives (-33%) and cheese (-31%) to be smaller than a CFG serving size (p = 0.05); and chicken, carrots, and milk servings accurately (p > 0.05). Serving size estimates were positively correlated with the amount of food participants regularly consumed at 1 meal (p 
PubMed ID
22845713 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.